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Effect of Weed Management Practices on Nutrient Uptake and Economics of Mustard (Brassica juncea)

Y. Yernaidu, Y. S. Parameswari, M. Madhavi and T. Ramprakash

  • Page No:  016 - 019
  • Published online: 17 Feb 2023
  • DOI: HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/2/2023.0504a

  • Abstract
  •  yernaiduyalla@gmail.com

A field experiment was conducted during rabi season (November to February, 2020–21) at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The farm is geographically positioned at 17°19’16.4” North latitude and 78°24’43” East longitude and at an altitude of 542.3 m above the mean sea level. According to troll’s climatic classification, it is categorized under semi-arid tropics (SAT). The experimental field was sandy loam texture with available nitrogen (223 kg ha-1), available phosphorus (30.87 kg ha-1) and potassium (375.72 kg ha-1). Mustard variety NRCHB-101 was sown with seed rate of 4 kg ha-1. The seeds were sown in solid rows 40 cm apart between rows and at a depth of 3‒4 cm and covered with loose soil immediately after seeding.  The experiment was laid out in randomized block design with twelve treatments and replicated thrice. The data was analyzed using standard statistical techniques. Among different weed management practices, higher nutrient uptake (59.57, 24.51, 52.46 kg ha-1 ) by crop were observed under intercultivation and hand weeding at 15 and 30 DAS and it was on par with Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS.  Similarly higher gross and net returns (68933/- and 42952/-) were noticed with intercultivation and hand weeding at 15 and 30 DAS and it was on par with Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha- 1PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS. Higher B:C ratio was noticed under Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS (2.96).

Keywords :   Mustard, oxydiargyl, weed, straw mulch, nutrient, net returns and profit 

  • Introduction

    Mustard is one of the most important crop adopted by the farmers in the North eastern hill region of India. This is a potential crop in winter (rabi) season due to its wider adaptability and suitability to exploit residual moisture. Rapeseed-mustard comprising eight different species are cultivated viz. Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), brown sarson (Brassica campestris var. brown sarson), yellow sarson (Brassica campestris var. yellow sarson), toria (Brassica campestris var. toria), gobhi sarson (Brassica napus), black mustard (Brassica nigra), karan rai (Brassica carinata) and rocket salad or taramira (Eruca sativa) are being cultivated in 53 countries spreading all over the globe (Raj et al., 2021, Tiwari et al., 2021). Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) alone occupies 7% of the total area among brassicas grown in India. It contributes 24.7% and 29.4%, respectively, to total area and production of oilseeds during 2019–20 (Anonymous, 2019). In India, mustard cultivated in 6.23 million hectares with a production of 9.34 mt and with a productivity of 1499 kg ha-1 during 2019–20 (Anonymous, 2019–20). Major mustard growing states are Rajasthan, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Gujarat, Assam. Non-traditional areas are Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka etc. The area under mustard in Telangana is 3000 hectares with a production 5000 tonnes. (Anonymous, 2019–20).    

    The oil content in mustard varies from 37–49% (Bhowmik et al., 2014). The oil is utilized for human consumption throughout the northern India for cooking purposes (Kuma, 2012, Singh and Kumar, 2020, Singh et al., 2022). It is used in the manufacture of greases. The seed is used as condiment. The leaves of young plants are used as green vegetables, as it supply sulphur and minerals in the diet. Oil cake is used as feed and manure (Chauhan et al., 2006, Singh, 2020).

    In spite of being one of the leading oilseeds producing countries, India with its vast population, it is unable to meet the requirement for edible oils. India is spending valuable foreign exchange for importing edible oils to meet the demand. For bridging gap between demand and supply, productivity needs to be enhanced. Weeds are the major biotic stress in mustard production. Weed competition in mustard is more serious during early stage because crop growth remains slow during the first 4–6 weeks after sowing (Adhikary and Ghosh, 2014, Sheoran, 2016, Gupta et al., 2018, Das et al., 2020, Sharma et al., 2021). However, during later stages it grows vigorously and has suppressing effect on weeds. Weeds compete with crop for water, nutrients and light which effect growth and development of crop. Hence, there is need to remove weeds in the early stage of crop growth to avoid competition on the reserve moisture. The most common weeds that grow in rapeseed mustard are Avena ludoviciana, Phalaris minor, Chenopodium album, Rumex dentatus, Anagallis arvensis, Convolvulus arvensis and Cirsium arvensis (Singh and Kumar, 2020, Singh, et al., 2020, Singh et al., 2021, Brar et al., 2021). The critical period of crop weed competition in mustard is 15–40 DAS and weeds cause about 25–50% of yield loss (Chandolia et al., 2010, Singh et al., 2013, Kaur et al., 2013, Singh et al., 2022). In mustard hand weeding and hand-pulling are the traditional practices. But increasing wages, scarcity of labour at peak periods and high-cost involvement compels need to depend other alternatives which are technically feasible and economically viable (Punia, 2014, Mahajan et al., 2018). Keeping this in view, the present experiment was carried out with the objective to study the weed management practices influenced on nutrient uptake by mustard crop and economics in mustard.


  • Materials and Methods

    A field experiment was conducted during rabi season (November to February, 2020–21) at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad. The farm is geographically positioned at 17°19’16.4” North latitude and 78°24’43” East longitude and at an altitude of 542.3 m above mean sea level. According to troll’s climatic classification, it is categorized under semi-arid tropics (SAT). The experimental field was sandy loam texture.  The initial soil status of the field is low in available nitrogen (223 kg ha-1), high in available phosphorus (30.87 kg ha-1) and medium in potassium (375.72 kg ha-1). Mustard variety  NRCHB-101 (90-110 days duration) was sown with seed rate of 4 kg ha-1. The seeds were sown manually with spacing of 40×10 cm2. The experiment was laid out in randomised block design with twelve treatments and replicated thrice viz.,T1: Pendimethalin 30% EC 1.0 kg ha-1PE fb Quizalofop ethyl 5% EC 0.05 kg ha-1 PoE, T2: Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha-1 PE fb Quizalofop ethyl 5% EC 0.05 kg ha-1 PoE, T3: Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC 0.1 kg ha-1 PE fb Quizalofop ethyl 5% EC 0.05 kg ha-1 PoE, T4: Pendimethalin 30% EC 1.0 kg ha-1 PE fb straw mulch 5 t ha-1, T5: Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha-1 PE fb straw mulch 5 t ha-1, T6: Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC 0.1 kg ha-1 PE fb straw mulch 5 t ha-1, T7: Pendimethalin 30% EC 1.0 kg ha-1PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS, T8: Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS, T9: Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC 0.1 kg ha-1PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS, T10: Intercultivation and hand weeding at 15 and 30 DAS (weed free), T11: Intercultivation at 15 and 30 DAS, T12: Unweeded control. Pre-emergence herbicides were applied within 24 hours after sowing. Post-emergence herbicide was sprayed at 2–3 leaf stage of weeds. Straw mulch was laid at 15 DAS. Intercultivation was done with push hoe at 15 and 30 DAS. Hand weeding was done at 15 and 30 DAS.  The observations were -recorded on yield, nutrient uptake by crop and economics.


  • Results and Discussion

    3.1.  Effect on yield

    Higher seed (1483 kg ha-1) and stover yield (3280 kg ha-1) were recorded in the treatment where intercultivation and hand weeding was done at 15 and 30 DAS and it was on par with Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS (1349 kg ha-1 tseed and 3149 kg ha-1 stover yields?). This treatment was on par with Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC 0.1 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS, and Pendimethalin 30% EC 1.0 kg ha-1PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS. Effective control of weeds provided congenial environment for crop which resulted in higher yield attributes led to higher yield in mustard crop by using Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha-1 PE (Mankar, 2015).

    3.2.  Effect on nutrient uptake by mustard crop

    Different weed management practices had a significant impact on nutrient uptake by crop (Table 1). Higher nutrient uptake by crop (66.51, 28.22, 59.29 kg ha-1 N, P2O5, K2O) was observed under intercultivation and hand weeding at 15 and 30 DAS and it was on par with Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha-1PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS (61.37, 25.78,54.21 kg ha-1 N, P2O5, K2O). This treatment was on par with Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC 0.1 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS (59.57, 24.51, 52.46 kg ha-1 N, P2O5,K2O) and Pendimethalin 30% EC 1.0 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS (56.14, 24.05,51.03 kg ha-1 N, P2O5, K2O) . Weed free environment favoured higher plant height and dry matter production which resulted in higher nutrient uptake by mustard crop (Degra et al., 2017).


    3.3.  Effect on economics

    The results (Table 2) revealed that, maximum gross and net returns (68933/- and 42952/-) were recorded under intercultivation and hand weeding at 15 and 30 DAS and this treatment was followed by Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS, Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC 0.1 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS, Pendimethalin 30% EC 1.0 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS. But higher B:C ratio (2.96) was recorded with Oxadiargyl 6% EC 0.09 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS followed by Oxyfluorfen 23.5% EC 0.1 kg ha-1 PE fb intercultivation at 30 DAS (2.91) due to lower cost of cultivation (Rs. 21125/-) (Kalita et al., 2017).


  • Conclusion

    Reference

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Cite

1.
Yernaidu Y, Parameswari YS, Madhavi M, Ramprakash T. Effect of Weed Management Practices on Nutrient Uptake and Economics of Mustard (Brassica juncea) IJEP [Internet]. 17Feb.2023[cited 8Feb.2022];10(1):016-019. Available from: http://www.pphouse.org/ijep-article-details.php?art=369

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