Research Article

Optimization of Intra-Row Spacing for Yield Enhancement in System of Mustard Intensification (SMI) Techniques

Tapas Kumar Pandit, Shyamashree Roy and Bimal Das

  • Page No:  1170 - 1175
  • Published online: 18 Nov 2022
  • DOI : HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/1.2022.2960

  • Abstract

The experimental work was carried out during the rabi seasons (November to February) of the year 2018 and 2019 at Instructional field of RRS (OAZ), Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Majhian, Dakshin Dinajpur, West Bengal, India to study the growth and yield performance of different varieties from toria, rapeseed and Indian mustard with three different spacing combinations under System of Mustard Intensification (SMI) technology. The seedlings were raised in micro-pots (2×2.5 cm2 size) and transplanted in the main plot. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized block design replicated thrice. The treatments consisted of three levels of plant spacing (25×25 cm2, 45×45 cm2, 60×60 cm2) and included 3 varieties one each from toria, rapeseed and Indian mustard group. Among different treatment combinations, variety Bhagirathi (from Indian mustard group), in combination with spacing of 60×60 cm2 (S3V3) was recorded with highest yield (1348.08 kg ha-1) followed by its rest of the combinations with 25×25 cm2 (1331.42 kg ha-1) and 45cm×45 cm (1320.67 kg ha-1), i.e. S1V3 and S2V3, respectively. Plant height (cm) was also recorded highest with S3V3 treatment followed by S2V3 and S1V3. Total chlorophyll (mg 100 g-1) content was recorded highest with the same Bhagirathi variety S1V3 treatment (18.99) followed by S2V3 (17.45) and S3V3 (17.61). Amongst the yield attributing characters, number of secondary branches, number of siliqua plant-1 and total chlorophyll content were recorded highest with the Bhagirathi variety from the Indian mustard group with the spacing of 60×60 cm2 (S3V3).

Keywords :   Micro-pot, mustard, spacing, system of mustard intensification, yield


    Mustard (Brassica spp.) is an important oilseed crops and cultivated almost all place in India next to cereals crops. The area under rapeseed-mustard in India was 6.23 Million hectares, produced about 9.34 million tonnes with 1499 kg ha-1 productivity during the year 2018-19(Anonymous, 2019). The low yield is due to lack of high yielding varieties and improper agronomic practices (Rathour et al., 2021). There is a great scope of increasing yield of mustard by improving management practices. Therefore, modified crop production technologies, which support sustainable crop intensification can be developed and spread among the farmers. One growing concept of sustainable intensification is presently focusing on increasing input use efficiency, adoption of high-tech precision agriculture technologies for field crops, AWD (alternative wetting-and-drying) for irrigated rice production, and integrated pest and nutrient management to reduce and optimize the use of agrochemical inputs in different crops  (Anonymous, 2015, Heaton et al., 2013, Anonymous, 2013).System of crop intensification is one of those practices which improve the crop productivity and sustainability by proper management of natural resources. System of crop intensification principles can be applied in wide range of crops like System of Rice Intensification (SRI), System of Wheat Intensification (SWI), System of Sugarcane Intensification (SSI) and System of Mustard Intensification (SMI). Crop intensification provides better root growth by modification of management practices with their better functioning in soil. This makes the soil system better for living and also provides support against biotic and abiotic stress by making the crop healthier (Adhikari et al., 2018). It was found that presence of extensive root system, the interactions between plants and the soil microorganisms was comparatively higher with respect to water and nutrient uptake(Anas et al., 2011, Barison and Uphoff, 2011, Rupela et al., 2006, Thakur et al, 2013). System of Mustard Intensification was a new initiative for increasing mustard yield by some modification of soil, plant, moisture and nutrient management pattern. System of mustard intensification has been successfully done in Bihar and Gujrat  Verma, 2013).

    Row spacing is one of the very important practices for mustard production (Mondal et al., 1999). Chaudhary et al. (2016) from Pantnagar, reported that transplanting of Brassica carinata at 60×60 cm2 spacing improved its yield potential through root intensification in tarai region of Uttarakhand. SMI is the system of transplanting mustard of 8−10 days old seedling at wide spacing provides advantage of proper plant density and allows sufficient aeration, moisture, sunlight and nutrient availability leading to proper root system development from the early stage of crop growth. Spacing between rows of plants is another factor that affects the growth and yield of the crop. Improved varieties of mustard are capable of higher yields when grown under optimum row spacing and good method of planting. The seed yield and maturity of mustard plants are greatly influenced by environmental conditions regardless of proper row spacing. The improper row spacing of mustard decreased seed yield through synchronization of silique filling period with high temperatures, the decrease in assimilates production, drought stress occurrence, shortened silique filling period and acceleration of plant maturity (Mendham et al., 1981). Satapathy (2007) reported that with specific management practices, under system of mustard intensification local mustard varieties of Odisha yielded better than the conventional practice.  However, the System of Mustard Intensification along with row spacing information is still lacking. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out the suitable row to row spacing for mustard yield enhancement under SMI technology.


    2.1.  Experimental area

    The experiment was conducted in Rabi seasons (November−February) of year 2018 and 2019 at Instructional farm, RRS (OAZ), UBKV, Majhian, Dakshin Dinajpur, W.B, India lying at 26°19’86’’N latitude and 89°23’53’’E longitude with an average altitude of 43 m above the mean sea level. It comes under Gangetic old alluvial plain of sandy loam soil with acidic in nature.  The experimental site is situated under sub-tropical humid region with an average temperature range of 25–37°C during summer to 12–25°C during winter months. Average annual rainfall is about 1535 mm.

    2.2.  System of Mustard Intensification (SMI) Methodology

    2.2.1.  Production of seedling in nursery under micropots

    For SMI study many micropots (2×2.5 cm2 size) were purchased from local market. All the micropots were filled up with 1:1 combination of compost and soil. Each variety of mustard was shown by placing of one seed in each micropot in the month of middle October and allows them for seedling growth under natural environment. After 15 days of age at three leaf stage all the seedling under micropots were considered for transplanting in the main field.

    2.2.2.  Transplanting and yield parameter observation

    Nursery raising requires about 200 g seed which may produce about 70,000 seedlings that enough for one hectare. Before transplanting, the main field was ploughed properly and used recommended dose of NPK fertilizers (60:40:40 kg ha-1) and two tonnes of FYM ha-1. Transplanting was done by planting of one seedling from the micropots in field by maintaining planting distance. Irrigation, weeding and all the plant protection measures undertaken whenever required. The soil type of the research plot was sandy loam and pH was 5.52. During entire growth period different yield attributing traits were monitored such as plant height, number of secondary branches, number of siliqua plant-1, number of seeds siliqua-1 and seed yield kg ha-1. The leaf chlorophyll content also estimated as per protocol described by Davies (1976).

    2.3. Treatment combination

    The treatments consisted of three levels of intra spacing (25×25, 45×45, and 60×60 cm2) among the three different variety of Toria (cv. Agrani), Yellow sarson/ rapeseed (cv. Vinay) and Indian Mustard (cv. Bhagirathi) with plot size of 4×5 m2. The 9-treatment combination spacing and variety under SMI techniqueswere arranged in following pattern (Table 1).

    2.4. Statistical design and analysis

    The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with three replications of each treatment. The statistical analysis of experimental data utilized the ANOVA program was done on SPSS 20.0 software.


    3.1.  Effect of different spacing of SMI

    Analysis of variance showed significant difference of yield traits except number of seeds siliqua-1 among the treatments (different spacing and variety) studied under SMI practices. The interaction of plant spacing and varieties significantly influenced the plant height. Among the treatment combination maximum plant height was recorded in cv. Baghirathi with spacing of 60×60 cm2 ie. S3V3 (165.32 cm) followed by S2V3 161.25 and S1V3 (160.54) while minimum height in cv. Agraniwith 25×25 cm2 S1V2 (92.25 cm). On the other hand, S3V3 produces maximum yield parameter such as number of primary (9.00), secondary branches (10.82), number of siliqua plant-1 (297.45) and number of seeds siliqua-1 (13.20), while crop spacing maintain with 25×25 cm significantly reduces these parameters among the varieties (Table 2). The number of seeds siliqua-1 found no signification difference among the treatments. The test weight was maximum in S2V2 (3.49 g). The total chlorophyll content was recorded maximum in S1V3 (18.99 mg 100 g-1) followed by S3V3 (17.61 mg 100 g-1) and S2V3 (17.45 mg 100 g-1) whereas, minimum in S2V2 (14.03 mg 100 g-1) and S1V2(14.31 mg 100 g-1). The interaction of plant spacing and varieties significantly influenced the yield. Establishment of an optimum spacing is one of the important factors for securing good yield of mustard. Maximum seed yield in SMI techniques among the varieties was recorded when plant spacing maintain by 60×60 cm2 (Table 2). Satapathy (2007) reported that with specific management practices along with proper spacing under system of mustard intensification local mustard varieties of Odisha yielded better than the conventional practice.

    Among the treatments studied highest seed yield was recorded in S3V3 (1348.08 kg ha-1) followed byS1V3 (1331.42 kg ha-1) S2V3 (1320.67 kg ha-1) while lowest yield obtained from S3V1 (935.05kg ha-1). The maximum seed yield under SMI with spacing of row at 60 cm could be due to significantly higher number of branches plant-1, secondary branches, number of siliqua plant-1 and number of seeds siliqua-1. This result was in agreement with Singh et al. (2008) and Nautiyal et al. (2020).Maximum yield under wide spacing could be attributed to better growth of plants and maximum planting density and enhanced crop growth rate which might have resulted in efficient metabolism and also provide optimal growing conditions to individual mustard plants so that siliqua is maximized (Sondhiya et al., 2019). The yield enhancement effect of wider spacings between plants has also been reported Mevada et al. (2017) and Chhonkar et al. (2011). Gupta et al. (2018) reported that SMI techniques with sufficient irrigation facility improve oxygen supply to roots, thereby decreasing aerenchyma formation and causing a stronger, healthier root system with potential advantages for nutrient uptake. Previously a detail study on SMI in Bihar state found higher seed yield under transplanting system of mustard (ATMA, 2013). Additionally, the optimum plant spacing ensures proper growth of both aerial and underground parts of the plant through efficient utilization of solar radiation, nutrients and land as well as air spaces and water. The improper row spacing of mustard decreased seed yield through synchronization of silique filling period with high temperatures and decrease in assimilates production, (Alam et al., 2015).

    3.2. Correlation and multiple regression analysis of yield and its attributing traits under SMI

    The correlation coefficient analysis of mustard varieties with different planting density under SMI resulted the traits particularly number of secondary branches (r=0.841), number of siliqua plant-1 (r=0.931) and total chlorophyll content (r=0.863) were significant and positive associated with seed yield among the varieties (Table 3).

    On the other hand plant height also found significantly and positively correlated with number of secondary branches (r=0.970), number of siliqua plant-1(r=0.904) and total chlorophyll content (r=0.944) but no significant relation observed with seed yield, this may due to plant height as an important yield traits but because of similar method of practices derived non-significant response to yield. In order to know the predictive abilities under SMI techniques, the multiple regression analysis was carried out by taking seed yield kg ha-1 (Y) as dependent variable and yield attributing traits (X) as the independent variable. During the year 2018-19 of SMI studied, the coefficient of multiple determinants (R2) was 0.950 indicating 95.00% of the variation in yield improvement explained by the set of a variable in the study (Table 4).

    The best fit of one model over the other has beenattained by comparison of the regression parameter Yintercept (Fried et al., 1979); R2 (Berger, 1981,Waggoner, 1986).


    Based on intra-raw spacing study under SMI system among the three different varieties we found wide spacing 60×60 cm2 best for mustard yield. Among the three variety cv. Bhagirathi produces maximum yield and other traits response under wide spacing of System of Mustard Intensification. The character association under this study also revealed positive association of seed yield with number of secondary branches, number of siliqua plant-1 and total chlorophyll content.


    This study was funded by the Project Director, ATMA, Dakshin Dinajpur, West Bengal.

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P TK, it , Roy S, Das B. Optimization of Intra-Row Spacing for Yield Enhancement in System of Mustard Intensification (SMI) Techniques IJBSM [Internet]. 18Nov.2022[cited 8Feb.2022];13(1):1170-1175. Available from:

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