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Effect of Sowing Time and Nutrient Management on Physiological Parameters of Wheat

Lalita Bhayal, M. L. Kewat, Aakash, A. K. Jha, Divya Bhayal and Anamika Jain Badkul

  • Page No:  271 - 275
  • Published online: 23 Nov 2022
  • DOI: HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/2/2022.IJEP0484

  • Abstract
  •  divyabhayal123@gmail.com

A study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of soil application of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and farm yard manure (FYM) enriched with T. harzianum on pre-emergency damping off (PED) and post-emergence damping off (POED) in chilli and tomato seedlings in nursery beds containing naturally infested soil with Pythium aphanidermatum and Rhizoctonia solani in the experimental field area of Department of Plant Pathology, CCSHAU Hisar during 2018-19, 2019-20and 2020-21.The observations on disease incidence (%) were recorded up to 30 days after germination.  A control without soil amendment was also maintained. The maximum damping off was at 22.5, 23.4 and 22.9% in controland minimum at 15.7, 15.8 and 16.6% during 2018–19, 2019–20, 2020–21, respectively in chilliwhen SMS enriched with T. harzianum was applied. The mean of damping off disease incidence was minimum at 16.0% when SMS enriched with T. harzianum was applied and maximum at 22.9% in control. The maximum damping off was at 18.1, 19.4 and 18.7% in control and minimum at 12.2, 12.6 and 14.8% during 2018–19, 2019–20, 2020–21, respectively in tomato when SMS enriched with T. harzianum was applied. The mean of disease incidence (%) was minimum at 13.2% when SMS enriched with T. harzianum was applied and maximum at 18.7% in control. 

Keywords :   Sowing dates, nutrient management, CGR, RGR, LAI, LAD

  • Introduction

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important food grain crop of the world including India (Farooq et al., 2015). It is grown under varying climatic conditions and mostly suffer due to various abiotic stresses. Achieving higher growth of wheat is governed by sowing on suitable dates. Many studies revealed that higher temperature during vegetative or reproductive phases adversely affect the emergence and subsequent growth stages of crop (Dwivedi et al., 2015). The physiological parameters namely crop growth rate, relative growth rate, leaf area index and leaf area durationare commonlyused in crop growth analysis and these are best indicators for overall crop performance, under change in optimum temperatureand sowing time (Nataraja et al., 2006; Satter et al., 2010; Gupta and Kaur, 2022). In last two decades, marked changes in temperature have been witnessed in different parts of India and different physiological parameters require specific temperature for the production of maximum yield. Many researchers have reported that due to elevation in mean temperature (0.5°C), there is a reduction in wheat productivity by 10% (Djanaguiraman et al., 2020; Kumar et al., 2014). As temperature is increasing due to climate change and crop requires specific temperature for optimal performance. Henceforth, date of sowing is a non monetary option to synchronize temperature requirement with respect to particular physiological parameters. Therefore, it is essential and urgent need to understand wheat physiological behavior under changing temperature scenarios. Similar to this, one of the key factors affecting CGR, RGR, LAI, and LAD is nutrient management practices. However, due to most soils’ low to moderate levels of both key nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency are currently being recoded throughout India (Achakzai, 2012). The cause is likely due to an intensive cropping scheme combined with inefficient fertilizer application. Due to the large difference between nutrient addition and removal, nutrient mining poses a serious hazard to agricultural soil and is the main cause of the declining factor productivity of applied fertilizer input, particularly NPK. CGR, RGR, LAI, and LAD were all greatly improved by using NPK with FYM. (Poma et al., 2002; Singh and Agarwal, 2001; Khalil et al., 2011; Iftikhar et al., 2010). NPK nutrition is essential for completing the life cycle of plants; without it, plants cannot survive and exhibit aberrant development. Best nutrient management strategies must therefore be evaluated in order to improve the physiological parameter of wheat crop. Keeping the above-mentioned facts in view, the present experiment entitled “Effect of sowing time and nutrient management on the physiological parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)” was conducted during Rabi season 2020−21 and 2021−22 with the objective to optimize physiological parameters under changing thermal regimes using different dates of sowing and nutrient management.


  • Materials and Methods

    The experiment was conducted at Livestock Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, College of Agriculture, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) during Rabi season 2020−21 and 2021−22. Jabalpur is located at with an altitude of 411.78m above mean sea level, with 23°9’ North latitude and 79°58’ East longitude.Twelve treatments comprised of four dates of sowing viz., D1: 25th October, D2: 5th November, D3: 15th November and D4: 25th November were assigned in main plots and these were superimposed with three nutrient management viz., N1: Recommended dose of fertilizer, N2: 150% RDF+FYM 15 t ha-1 and N3: 150% RDF+FYM 15 t ha-1+Growth Regulators (Two spray as tank mix- Chlormequat chloride (Lihocin @ 0.2%)+Tebuconazole (Folicur @ 0.1%) as sub plot and carried out in split plot design with three replications. The experimental plots received major nutrients through different fertilizers as per the treatments. Half of the nitrogen along with whole of phosphorus and potassium was drilled at the time of sowing. Remaining half of the nitrogen was top dressed in two equal splits at 28−30 and 60−62 DAS. FYM was supplied and mixed is soil before sowing as per treatments. Chloromequat Choloride and Tebuconazole growth regulator were sprayed at 45 and 70 days after sowing as per treatments. The growth parameters viz., CGR was worked out as per formula given by Watson (1958), RGR and LAI formula by Williams (1946). LAD was calculated by the formula given by Power et al. (1967) at various time intervals. The data were analyzed as per the procedure suggested by Gomez and Gomez (1984).


  • Results and Discussion

    3.1.  Effect on crop growth rate

    It is obvious from the data given in table 1 that crop growth rate (CGR) of wheat was affected by different sowing dates and nutrient management. The value of CGR, in general, were higher during early period of crop growth but these were declined during with time being the maximum during 30-60 DAS stage due to completion of vegetative phase. But it was declined during 60−90 DAS owing to check on vegetative growth. The apparent influence of different dates of sowing was noted on CGR at all growth intervals The crop growth rate was higher when wheat was sown on 5th November (18.64 and 16.77 g m-2 day-1 during 2020-21; 19.32 and 17.67 g m-2 day-1 during 2021−22) and proved significantly superior over late sowing of wheat on 15th November and 25th November but found statistically at par with 25th October sowing of wheat during 30-60 and 60-90 DAS during both the years. The superior value of CGR under 5th November sown crop due to availability of favourable environmental conditions during different phases compared to other sowing dates. The results are in conformity with the findings of Haider (2007) and Gupta and Kaur (2022).

    Nutrient management showed significant effect on crop growth rate. All the treatments varied significantly in relation to crop growth rate. The higher CGR was recorded during 30-60 DAS and 60-90 DAS in case of application of 150% RDF+FYM 15 t ha-1+Growth Regulators (Chlormequat chloride+Tebuconazole @ 0.1%) (18.49 and 16.25 g m-2 day-1 during 2020−21; 19.15 and 16.77 g m-2 day-1 during 2021−22) significantly superior over rest of the treatments. The minimum value of CGR found under recommended dose of fertilizer. The application of optimal quantity of nutrients through fertilizers starting from the basal application as well as top dressing resulted in higher photosynthetic activity and consequently higher dry matter accumulation at all the time intervals. The release of nutrients, from the mineralization of added FYM, throughout the crop season also resulted in better nutrient availability to the crop and subsequently higher crop growth rate. Application of NPK+FYM significant increase in the crop growth rate was also reported by Singh and Agarwal (2001). Singh et al. (2019) also concluded that N 180 kg ha-1+Chlormequat chloride + Tebuconazole increase the dry matter and CGR of wheat.

    3.2.  Effect on relative growth rate

    The relative growth rate (RGR) of wheat was affected significantly due to different dates of sowing and nutrient management during 30−60 DAS and 60-90 DAS (Table 1). Sowing of wheat on 5th November recorded significantly higher RGR during 30−60 and 60-90 DAS (0.054 and 0.036 g g-1 day-1 during 2020−21; 0.057 and 0.037 g g-1 day-1 during 2021−22) as compared to other sowing dates being the minimum under 25th November. The higher relative growth rate under 5th November sowing was due to long duration was available to crop and to overall improvement for better relative growth rate. Similar views have also been enclosed by Gupta and Kaur (2022).

    Data indicate (Table 1) that application 150% RDF+FYM 15 t ha-1+Chlormequat chloride+Tebuconazole was having the highest RGR (0.052 and 0.035 g g-1 day-1 during 2020−21; 0.054 and 0.036 g g-1 day-1 during 2021−22) and found significantly superior during 30−60 DAS and 60−90 DAS over recommended dose of fertilizer but found at par with 150% RDF+FYM 15 t ha-1 during both the years. The overall improvement in crop growth caused by optimal nutrition, which includes combining all nutrients and increasing the role of fertility levels, may be attributable to their potential role in altering the soil and plant environment to promote better development of both morphological and biochemical components of the plant growth that increased efficiency of physiological processes of the plant system. Similarly, Alam (2013), Verma et al. (2017) and Mohanty et al. (2015) also observed significantly higher growth rate in wheat with under the application of higher nitrogen and organic manures in various soil types.


    3.3.  Effect on leaf area index

    It is clear from the data presented in Table 2 that the leaf area index (LAI) of wheat at various stages at 30, 60 and 90 DAS was significantly influenced by different dates of sowing and nutrient management. The value of LAI increased with the increase of plant age. This might be due to the increase of leaf expansion at the later stages of plant growth. Sowing on 5th November was having significantly maximum leaf area index (1.17, 3.51 and 3.88 during 2020−21; 1.34, 3.53 and 3.90 during 2021−22) as compared to delayed sowing but it was statistically at par with 25th October sowing at 30, 60 and 90 DAS during both the year (2020−21 and 2021−22). Maximum leaf area index with 5th November sowing was due to availability of favourable environment for synthesis of growth favouring constituents in plant system which induced tiller and leave formation, which increased number of leaves per unit area and ultimately leaf area index. Tripathi (2003) and Pande (2009) also reported that timely sown crop was having higher LAI in comparison to late sown crop. Delay in sowing reduced LAI probably because of reduction in rate of photosynthesis and poor development of leaves. Similar finding was reported by Suleiman et al. (2014). They reported that leaf area index was reduced when sowing was delayed beyond optimum sowing date.

    Leaf area index at 30, 60 and 90 days after sowing (DAS) was significantly influenced by nutrient management. At 30 DAS,  maximum  leaf area index was recorded (1.06, 3.40 and 3.73 during 2020−21; 1.23, 3.45 and 3.78 during 2021-22) in plots receiving 150% RDF+FYM 15 t ha-1+Growth Regulators (Chlormequat chloride+Tebuconazole @ 0.1%) being significantly superior to recommended dose of fertilizer but found at par with 150% RDF+FYM 15 t ha-1. At later stages 60 and 90 DAS, application of 150% RDF+FYM 15 t ha-1+Growth Regulators (Chlormequat chloride+Tebuconazole @ 0.1%) recorded maximum LAI and found significantly superior over rest of the treatments. Spraying Tebuconazole and Chlormequat chloride on wheat leaves enhanced leaf area, postponed leaf senescence, and ultimately raised LAI (Mondal et al. (2020). Additionally, Yagoub et al. (2012) demonstrated that NPK+FYM had higher LAI than the control.

    3.4.  Effect on leaf area duration

    Data on leaf area duration (LAD) of wheat as influenced by different date of sowing and nutrient management at 30−60 and 60−90 DAS have been given in Table 2. Among different dates of sowing, maximum leaf area duration (70.17 and 110.93 days during 2020-21; 75.43 and 112.96 days during 2021−22) were recorded when crop was sown on 5th November and proved significantly superior over delayed sowing i.e. 15th November and 25thNovember but found at par with 25th October. Higher Leaf Area Duration in 05th November Sowing crop due to optimum temperature (20°C) at the vegetative stage enhanced the leaf Initiation and leaf emergence for a longer period as revealed in the regular growing conditions in wheat This length was shorter due to delayed sowing and lower temperatures during the early vegetative stage than what was observed during the late growing condition. A nearly identical outcome was reported by Yadavi et al. (2015).

    The maximum leaf area duration (66.85 and 106.91 days during 2020−21; 70.69 and 110.49 days during 2021−22) was recorded with the application of 150% RDF+15 t FYM ha-1+Growth Regulators (Chlormequat chloride and Tebuconazole) and proved significantly superior over other nutrient management treatments. The minimum leaf area duration was recorded under recommended dose of fertilizer. According to Alam (2013), N 160 kg ha-1 increases leaf area and leafiness during the growth period.


  • Conclusion

    Wheat on 5th November and application of 150% RDF+FYM 15 t ha-1+Growth Regulators (Chlormequat chloride @ 0.2%+Tebuconazole @ 0.1%) was found more productive as wheat attained maximum values of CGR, RGR, LAI and LAD.


    Wheat on 5th November and application of 150% RDF+FYM 15 t ha-1+Growth Regulators (Chlormequat chloride @ 0.2%+Tebuconazole @ 0.1%) was found more productive as wheat attained maximum values of CGR, RGR, LAI and LAD.


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Cite

1.
Bhayal L, Kewat ML, Aakash , Jha AK, Bhayal D, Badkul AJ. Effect of Sowing Time and Nutrient Management on Physiological Parameters of Wheat IJEP [Internet]. 23Nov.2022[cited 8Feb.2022];9(1):271-275. Available from: http://www.pphouse.org/ijep-article-details.php?art=350

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