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Prevalence of Cotton Leaf Curl Virus Disease in North-West Part of Rajasthan and its Management

R. N. Sharma, R. B. Gaur and V. Singh

  • Page No:  165 - 171
  • Published online: 28 Aug 2021
  • DOI: HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/2/2021.0416c

  • Abstract
  •  rnsharma.patho@sknau.ac.in

Field survey to find out the severity of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) disease was undertaken during the year 2009. The cotton fields of 62 villages/ Chaks covering 7 tehsils of Sriganganagar and 7 tehsils of Hanumangarh district were surveyed which comprises North-West part of Rajasthan, India. Severe attack of CLCV (6.3–100%) in Sriganganagar tehsil; moderate attack (0–32.3%) in Srikaranpur, Sangaria and Hanumangarh tehsil; low level (0–10.8%)  attack in Sadulsahar, Tibi and Nohar tehsil and traces level (0–5.7%) attack in Bhadra, Anupgarh, Raisinghnagar, Padampur and Suratgarh tehsil was observed. Further, a field trial was also laid out at ARS, Sriganganagar for the management of disease for two consecutive years (2010 and 2011). Minimum disease intensity (31.5%) and maximum reduction in disease intensity (37.5%) over control were observed in the foliar treatment of Acephate 60% WP + Kresoxim methyl 15% WG (750+187.5 g a.i. ha-1) followed by Buprofezin 25% SC (250 g a.i. ha-1). Acephate 75% SP (750 g a.i. ha-1) provided 34.9 and 33.7% protection from the disease as compared to control.

Keywords :   Cotton leaf curl virus, fungicide, insecticide, management, white fly

  • Introduction

    Cotton leaf Curl Virus (CLCV) disease is one of the most devastating and serious problems particularly in northern cotton growing region of India that has the potential to inflict huge economic losses to cotton yield up to 81-88% (Leke et al., 2015; Kumar et al., 2016; Hasan et al., 2019). CLCV disease is caused by a circular single stranded DNA (monopartite or bipartite) Gemini virus belonging to genus Begomovirus and family Geminiviridae, in association with satellite molecules (Xiong et al., 2004; Ha et al., 2008). Its viral nature was established in 1926 (Singh et al., 1998). The disease is transmitted by ubiquitous vector known as white fly (Bemisia tabaci) in a persistent and circulative manner (Ruiz et al., 2006; Nogia et al., 2014; Sattar et al.,2017; Zerbini et al., 2017). In 1912, CLCV disease was first time reported scientifically from Nigeria on Gossypium vitifolia and Gossypium peruvianum (Farquharson, 1912). In India, it was first reported on American cotton (G. hirsutum) in Sriganganagar area of Rajasthan state (Ajmera, 1994).

    The characteristic symptoms of CLCV disease are small vein thickening, upward and downward leaf curling or cupping, main vein thickening, development of leaf-like enations on the undersides of leaves (Qazi et al., 2007). In severe cases, reduction of internodal length leading to stunting and reduced flowering or fruiting and quality is also noted (Majeed et al., 1999). Infection of CLCV disease at seedling stage is very much destructive causing enormous yield losses (Kirkpatrick and Rothrock, 2001).

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is an important crop cultivated throughout the world for fiber, feed, fuel and food (Chakravarthy et al., 2014). India occupying the largest production area of cotton, covering about 13 million ha with production and productivity of 37.1 million bales and 487 kg ha-1, respectively, contributes world’s 26% cotton production at 41% land devoted to cotton cultivation with 23% consumption (Anonymous, 2021a). It plays a dominant role in the industrial and agricultural economy of the country. It provides employment to over 51 million people directly and 68 million people indirectly, including unskilled women in India (Anonymous, 2021b). Due to its immense economic importance, it is also called “white gold”. Cotton has multipurpose uses and it provides basic products like hulls, lint, linters, meal and oil (Desrochers and Szurmak, 2017). The North Zone of India covers 12% of the cotton area and 17% production (Anonymous 2019). Rajasthan also play a pivotal role in American cotton cultivation by covering 4.94 lakh ha area with production of 16.87 lakh bales and productivity of 580 kg ha-1 (Anonymous, 2018).

    Per hectare yield of cotton in India is still lower against the world average of about 768 kg ha-1 (Anonymous, 2021a). Among the various biotic and abiotic factors responsible for its low production and productivity during the last two decade, cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) disease has been found to be one of the major limiting factor (Humza et al., 2016).

    CLCV disease is a serious constraint in cultivation of cotton, affected the production adversely which leads to deterioration of fiber quality and yield (Farooq et al., 2014; Vyas et al., 2017). Due to the wide proliferation and destructive nature of the CLCV disease, an attempt has been made to survey the cotton fields in North-West part of Rajasthan covering Sriganganagar and Hanumangarh districts to find out situation of the disease in the area. Keeping in view of the seriousness of the disease, a field research trial was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Sriganganagar (Rajasthan) to evolve effective management strategy for CLCV disease. For this, insect growth regulator (IGR), insecticides and fungicide were selected for eco-friendly management of the disease.


  • Materials and Methods

    2.1.  Field survey

    As the cotton crop occupies sizable area only in two districts viz., Sriganganagar and Hanumangarh which comprises North-West part of Rajasthan, the detail survey to find out the severity of CLCV disease at farmer fields and research farm was undertaken during the kharif season 2009. The cotton fields of 62 villages or Chaks covering 7 tehsils of Sriganganagar and 7 tehsils of Hanumangarh district were surveyed. The disease observations were taken on 100 randomly selected plants in each cotton field using 0-6 disease rating scale (Akthar et al., 2010) where: 0=Complete absence of symptoms; 1=Symptoms of vein thickening on a few upper leaves; 2=Symptoms of vein thickening, cupping and curling on few upper leaves; 3=25% plant affected with vein thickening, cupping, and curling, leafy enations; 4=50% plant affected with vein thickening, cupping, and curling, leafy enations; 5=75% plant affected with vein thickening, cupping, and curling, leafy enation; 6=plants stunted severely and complete plant affected with vein thickening, cupping and curling, and leafy enation.

    Percent disease intensity (PDI) was calculated by using the following formula (Gaur and Sharma, 2010):

    PDI=(∑ All numerical ratings/Total No. of plants observed× Maximum disease rating)×100

    2.2.  Management of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) disease

    A field trial was laid out at Agricultural Research Station (S.K. Rajasthan Agricultural University), Sriganganagar (Rajasthan) to test the efficacy of different insect growth regulators (Buprofezin 20% WP, Buprofezin 25% SC), fungicides (Kresoxim methyl 15% WG, Kresoxim methyl 50% SC) and insecticides (Acephate 50% WP,  Acephate 60% WP, Acephate 75% SP, Spinetoram 12% SC) and their different combinations in controlling the CLCV disease using susceptible cultivar RCH-134 Bt for two consecutive crop seasons (2010 and 2011). The treatments of foliar application were as: (i) Buprofezin 20%  WP+Acephate 50% WP (250+625 g a.i. ha-1), (ii) Buprofezin 25% SC (250 g a.i. ha-1), (iii) Acephate 60% WP+Kresoxim methyl 15% WG (750+187.5 g. a.i. ha-1), (iv) Kresoxim methyl 50% SC (187.5 g a.i. ha-1), (v) Acephate 75% SP (562.5 g a.i. ha-1), (vi) Acephate 75% SP (750 g a.i. ha-1), (vii) Spinetoram 12% SC (36 g a.i. ha-1), (viii) Spinetoram 12% SC (48 g a.i. ha-1) and (ix) control (only water). The experiment was framed in randomized block design with three replications. 

    Data regarding CLCV disease severity was recorded on the basis of symptom appearance using the 0-6 disease rating scale as described earlier and calculated as per cent disease intensity (PDI). The incidence (%) of the disease was worked out on the basis of total plants observed. The Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. Per cent disease reduction (PDR) over control was calculated (Sharma et al., 2009) as:

    PDR=(PDI in Control-PDI in treatment/PDI in control)×100


  • Results and Discussion

    3.1.  Disease severity

    It was observed that Sriganganagar district was having higher average disease intensity (8.92%) as compared to Hanumangarh district (3.25). The range of disease intensity in different fields of cotton in Sriganganagar district was also very high reaching to the level of 0–100%. Whereas, in Hanumangarh district the disease ranged between 0–32.3% only (Table 1).


    Out of 7 tehsils surveyed in Sriganganagar district, Sriganganagar tehsil was found to be heavily invaded by leaf curl virus showing average disease intensity of 45% within the range of 6.3-100%. Srikaranpur tehsil was next in order of disease intensity. But the intensity level was only 9.7% and disease ranged between 0-19.7% only. Minimum disease intensity was recorded in Anupgarh (0.3%) tehsil of the district. Two tehsils (Suratgarh and Raisinghnagar) were found free from leaf curl attack.

    In Sriganganagar tehsil which showed highest leaf curl intensity (45%) among all, five villages viz., Kathlabana, Shivepurhead, Sadhuwali, Sujawalpur and Hindumalkot together form hot zone for leaf curl disease. The average disease intensity in this zone was between 66.3–78% and range of leaf curl intensity in different fields in this zone was between 50–86.8%. Frequent availability of irrigation water in this area and high population of weeds in cotton fields and adjoining area might be responsible for aggravated the disease as these conditions are favourable for survival and development of the white fly (Bemisia tabaci), the vector of cotton leaf curl virus.

    However, the common cotton cultivars viz. RCH- 134, 6488, JKCH-1947 which were growing at cultivators fields when observed at Research farm of Agricultural Research Station (ARS), indicated much higher leaf curl intensity compared to under farmers fields. At Research farm, the average leaf curl intensity was 87.6% with the range of 62.9–100%. This higher disease intensity may be attributed due to continuous inoculums build up at farm because of planting of large number of susceptible material year after year. 

    Hanumangarh district indicated only 3.25% average leaf curl intensity ranging between 0–32.3%. Hanumangarh tehsil and Sangaria tehsil showed average leaf curl intensity of 6.3 to 6.6%. However, range of leaf curl intensity in Hanumangarh tehsil was higher i.e. 0–32.3% compared to 0–20.3% in Sangaria tehsil. Bhadra tehsil was found completely free from leaf curl attack. In four tehsils of the district viz., Pelibanga, Tibi, Nohar and Rawatsar, the average disease intensity ranged from 2.7–3.9% only. The range of disease intensity was high (0-10.8 %) in Tibi tehsil.

    The overall leaf curl disease situation in both the districts indicated severe attack (25-50%) in Sriganganagar tehsil, moderate attack (5.1–25%) in Srikaranpur, Sangaria and Hanumangarh tehsil, low level (1.1–5%) attack in Sadulsahar, Tibi and Nohar tehsil and traces level (0–1%) attack in Bhadra, Anupgarh, Raisinghnagar, Padampur and Suratgarh tehsil .

    3.2.  Management of cotton leaf curl virus (CLCV) disease

    On the basis of pooled data of two years (2010 and 2011), it was evident that minimum disease intensity (31.5%) and maximum reduction in disease intensity over control (37.5%) were observed in foliar treatmentof Acephate 60% WP+Kresoxim methyl 15% WG @ 750+187.5 g a.i. ha-1 followed by Buprofezin 25% SC @ 250 g a.i. ha-1 and Acephate 75% SP @ 750 g a.i. ha-1 exhibited 32.8 and 33.4% disease intensity and rendered 34.9 and 33.7% protection from the disease as compared to control. Foliar spray of Kresoxim methyl and Spinetoram were found next in order of efficacy in controlling the disease. Rest of the treatments showed low to moderate efficacy against the disease.

    As far as disease incidence is concerned, minimum disease incidence (45.0%) and maximum reduction in disease incidence over control (13.5%) was observed in treatment where foliar spray of Acephate 60% WP+Kresoxim methyl 15% WG @ 750+187.5 g a.i. ha-1 was done. Next best treatments were Buprofezin 25% SC @ 250 g a.i. ha-1 and Acephate 75% SP @ 750 g a.i. ha-1 providing 11.9 and 11.2% protection from the disease compared to control. Rest of the treatments exhibited low to moderate potential in controlling the disease (Table 2 and Figure 1).


    Present results are in agreement with those who estimated annual CLCV disease incidences as 37.5, 63.6 and 38.8% in three North-West Indian states viz., Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan, respectively (Bhattacharyya et al., 2017; Nenavath et al., 2017; Biswas et al., 2020). The CLCV disease management can be done through control of its vector (white fly). Similar to present findings, the efficacy of Acephate and Buprofezin against the vector (white fly) of the CLCV disease has already been established (Ali et al., 2005; Anonymous, 2010) who reported Acephate and Buprofezin to be effective in reducing the white fly population. Buprofezin is the first insect growth regulator in the world which inhibits chitin formation thereby causing abnormal endocuticular deposition and abortive molting. As a result of chitin deficiency, the procuticle of the insects loses its elasticity and the insect is unable to complete the molting process which leads to death of insect (De Cock and Degheele, 1998). The difference among efficacy of different insecticides against cotton white fly is mainly due to different locations and agro-climatic conditions of their experiment.


  • Conclusion

    The present findings revealed that cotton leaf curl virus disease is a major constraint in the cotton cultivation in North-West part of Rajasthan ranging from 0 to 100% intensity. Though the foliar sprays of Acephate + Kresoxim methyl (750+187.5 g a.i. ha-1) proved most effective against the disease, Acephate is no more in use. Thus, foliar sprays of Buprofezin (250 g a.i. ha-1) may be recommended for the eco-friendly management of the disease.


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