Full Research

Survey on Panama Wilt Disease (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) of Banana in Mysuru, Mandya and Chamarajanagar Districts of Karnataka

T. C. Archith, V. Devappa, R. K. Mesta, M. K. Honnabyraiah and D. L. Rudresh

  • Page No:  073 - 080
  • Published online: 28 May 2021
  • DOI: HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/2/2021.0411

  • Abstract
  •  archithf1@gmail.com

The roving survey was carried to find out the prevalence of Fusarium wilt disease incidence in banana cultivars during 2016-17 to 2017-18 in different places of Mysuru, Mandya and Chamarajanagar districts of Karnataka. During the survey, the average disease incidence of Fusarium wilt was ranged from 6.54 to 25.47%. The mean disease incidence in Mysuru district was 15.00% during 2016-17 and 25.47% in 2017-18, Mandya district recorded the average disease incidence of 6.54% during 2016-17 and 7.88% in 2017-18 and Chamarajanagar district showed the average disease incidence of 13.24% during 2016-17 and 10.56% in 2017-18. Among districts, Mysuru recorded the highest average disease incidence followed by Chamarajanagar. While the severe form of disease was observed in the cultivar Nanjanagudu Rasabale (60.57%) in Krishnapura village of Nanjangud taluk. However, among all the locations surveyed the highest disease incidence recorded was 60.57 % and lowest incidence was 0.00%. The maximum wilt incidence (%) was recorded in cultivar Nanjangud Rasabale followed by Ney Poovan 28.00 %. Nanjangud taluk of Mysuru district reported severe incidence level of panama wilt disease when compared to other taluks and districts. The wilt incidence (%) was higher during 2017-18 showing the consecutive increase in the disease incidence compare to 2016-17. The increased wilt incidence (%) was due to virulence of the pathogen and susceptibility of the cultivars.

Keywords :   Banana, disease incidence, Fusarium wilt, Nanjangud, Rasabale

  • Introduction

    Banana (Musa paradisiaca) is an important ancient tropical fruit in the world. It belongs to family Musaceae and native to tropical region of Southeast Asia. Banana is cultivated throughout the warm tropical regions of the world and extensively cultivated in Brazil, Ecuador, China, Philippines, Indonesia, Cost Arica, Mexico, Thailand, Colombia and India. It is grown as monoculture or mixed cropping system. The total annual global production of banana is estimated around 113.9 million tonnes (agriexchange.apeda.gov.in). India stands first in the World banana production (26.5% of the World production). In India, it is regarded as “fruit of the wise men” and it is grown in an area of 8.74 lakh ha with an annual production of 30 million tones and the average productivity is 35.88 MT ha1 (http://agricoop.nic.in). Tamil Nadu state has the largest area under cultivation in India, followed by Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. The average yield ha-1 is very low, due to abiotic stressors, such as salinity (Willadino et al., 2017) and drought (Said et al., 2015; Nansamba et al., 2020). Another biotic stressor, represented by their primary pests, the banana root borer (Cosmopolites sordidus) and the nematodes Meloidogyne spp., Pratylenchus coffeae, and Radopholus similis (Monteiro et al., 2020) and disease-causing pathogens, including banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) (Galvez et al., 2020; Sairam et al., 2020), Xanthomonas vasicola p.v. musacearum causing bacterial wilt (Studholme et al., 2020), Pseudocercospora fijiensis causing black Sig Sigatoka (Timm et., 2016; Nascimento et al., 2020) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (FOC) causing Fusarium wilt (Dita et al., 2018; Goncalves et al., 2019). Among, Panama disease also known as Fusarium wilt or vascular wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (E.F. Smith) Snyd. and Hans. is one of the world’s most disastrous plant diseases (Ploetz and Pegg., 2000; Siamak and Zheng, 2018; Butler, 2013) and the disease was believed to have originated in Southeast Asia (Stover, 1962; Vakili, 1965). The latest outbreak of FocTR4 has been confirmed in the Americas affecting the most popular commercial variety which could have jeopardized banana production for decades (Lambert, 2019). Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) causes a typical wilt syndrome on the infected banana plants accompanied by the necrosis and rotting of roots, rhizome, and pseudostem vessels. These symptoms occur between 2 and 5 months after infection of roots (Stover, 1962). The first internal symptom of the disease occurs in the hair roots which are the initial sites of infection. The infection later progresses to the rhizome and pathogen passes through the affected vessels to the new growing shoot (Li et al., 2017).

    Presently, the disease is widespread in all the regions of India and varieties like Nanjanagud Rasabale (AAB), Rasthali (AAB), Ney Poovan (AB) and Virupakshi (AAB) were found highly susceptible, some of the local cultivars were in-danger of extinction (Thangavelu et al., 2001) and these cultivars are no-longer profitable to grow because of the damage caused by the pathogen. Among, Nanjanagud Rasabale is top ranked due to their inviting aroma and bright yellow peel with fluffy white delicious pulp. Choice table variety “Nanjangud Rasabale” is commercially grown in southern dry zone (Zone-6) of Karnataka at Nanjanagud taluk of Mysuru district (Stover and Malo,1972). This variety is highly susceptible to wilt diseases and area under cultivation is declining for many successive years, earlier data shows the cultivation was more than 500 hectares in the year 1990. The build-up of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense to aggressive levels with new races resulted in the decline of cultivation to 30 acres (Guranna et al., 2018). The pathogen lives in soil and penetrates the roots by colonizing rapidly in the xylem vessels (Ploetz, 2006). The internal symptoms of Fusarium wilt develop in the feeder roots, which are the initial sites of fungal infection (Ploetz, 1990). The fungus spreads to the rhizome, but the symptoms are most prominent where the stele joins the cortex (Ploetz et al., 1994). Later, the pseudostem is colonized and then the dim brown streaks or flecks become more evident on and within the older leaf sheaths (Ploetz, 2006). Consequently, an extensive area of the xylem turns brick red to brown colour. The internal spread of disease makes one’s way towards the first appearance of external symptoms like leaf yellowing pseudostem splitting and rotting (Ploetz et al., 1994). To know the status of the disease the roving survey was conducted in three districts of Karnataka. During survey the emphasis was made on the cultivar Nanjangud Rasabale to know the existence of the cultivar.

  • Materials and Methods

    Extensive survey work was carried out during 2016-17 to 2018-19 in different places of Mysuru, Mandya and Chamarajanagar districts of Karnataka, India. During survey observations were recorded with respect to cultivar, planting material used, GPS co-ordinates and wilt incidence based on the external symptoms. Samples were collected for isolation of pathogens and isolated pathogens were identified using PCR method and further confirmed by sequencing. In each district, major banana growing taluks were selected and in each village five fields were randomly selected. Observations were recorded with respect to the incidence of wilt. In each plot random samples were drawn, from which the number of plants affected over the total number of plants were counted and expressed as % disease incidence as described in the formula given by Vernell and Hecloud (1975).

    % disease incidence=(No.of plants showing wilting symptom/Total number of plants)×100

    The survey maps were prepared by using latitude and longitude of the field in Google Earth software 2016.

  • Results and Discussion

    All the isolated pathogens were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, these fungal strains showed 100% sequence similarity in nucleotide blast search for Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense with accession number MW214723.1. The data on roving survey of Panama wilt diseases incidence during 2016-17 to 2018-19 is presented in Table 1 and Table 2. The roving survey were conducted during September, October and November 2016-17 to 2018-19. The survey data revealed that the disease was prominent and present in all the surveyed districts and the survey maps were prepared and presented in Figure 1.

    During 2016-2017 the mean incidence of Fusarium wilt was 15.00% in Mysore district. Among taluks, the highest average incidence of 28.62% was observed in Nanjangud taluk followed by Mysuru taluk (10.66%). In Nanjangud taluk, Nandigunda village recorded the highest Fusarium wilt of 57.14% in the cv. Nanjangud Rasabale followed by Devarasanahalli village (51.69%) and the lowest disease incidence was noticed in Chikkahomma village (0.00%). In Mandya district, the average disease incidence was 6.54%. Maximum incidence of 7.2% was observed in Maddur taluk followed by Nagamangala taluk (7.05%). Among villages, Sompura village of Maddur taluk recorded highest incidence (12.71%) in the cv. Ney Poovan followed by H. Kodihalli village (8.89%) and lowest disease incidence was noticed in Chikkonahalli village (0.00%). Chamarajanagar is one of Nanjangud Rasabale growing district which is also well known for growing various other banana cultivars, in this district the average Fusarium wilt incidence was 13.24%. The maximum average incidence of 13.94% was observed in Kollegala taluk followed by Chamarajanagar taluk (12.53%). Kongarahalli village of Kollegala taluk noticed the highest incidence of wilt (29.77%) in the cv. Ney Poovan.

    During 2017-2018, average incidence of Fusarium wilt was 25.57% in Mysore district. The highest average incidence was observed in Nanjangud taluk of 45.39% followed by H D Kote taluk (19.30%). Among the villages in Nanjangud taluk, Krishnapura village recorded the highest Fusarium wilt incidence (60.57%) in the cv. Nanjangud Rasabale. The mean disease incidence of 7.88% was observed in Mandya district. Maximum average incidence of 13.27% was recorded in Nagamangala taluk followed by Mandya taluk (8.05%). Among the villages, Chandanahalli village of Nagamangala recorded highest incidence (15.33%). In Chamarajanagar district the disease incidence was 10.56%. The maximum average incidence recorded in Chamarajanagar taluk (14.82%) followed by Kollegala taluk (10.20%). Kalanahundi village of Chamarajanagar taluk noticed the highest wilt incidence (28.00%) in the cv. Ney Poovan.

    The disease was present in all the districts with various levels of wilt incidence. The two-year data showed the average disease incidence ranging from 6.54 to 25.47%. Mysuru district recorded the highest average disease incidence of 15.00 and 25.47%. Cultivar Nanjangud Rasabale was severely infected and highest disease incidence was found in this cultivar. The wilt incidence was higher during 2017-18 showing the consecutive increase in the disease incidence compare to 2016-17. Nanjangud taluk of Mysuru district reported severe incidence level of panama wilt disease when compared to other places surveyed because of continuous growing of susceptible cultivar every year and the disease spread is more compared to other districts. The increased wilt incidence in this was also due to virulence of the pathogen. This highly virulent pathogenic form was more contagious and devastative due to lack of effective management practices. The incidence was confirmative with results of Narendrappa and Gowda(1995). In 1890 to 1960, about 40,000 ha of banana cv. Gros Michel were destroyed or abandoned in Latin America and Caribbean because of Fusarium wilt (Moore et al., 1999).Similar incidence level of 2-10% in Tamil Nadu was observed by Sivamani and Ganamanickam (1987). Prasadji (2006) surveyed different regions of Andhra Pradesh and reported that the disease incidence was highest in Silk group cultivars viz., Amritapani and Rashthali grown mainly in the coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.Panama wilt disease has become most serious threat to banana cultivation because of TR4 strain in India. All the varieties of banana are susceptible to Foc race TR4. In this survey the spread or incidence of TR4 was not found in the surveyed districts.

  • Conclusion

    The average Fusarium wilt disease incidence ranged from 6.54 to 25.47% and the highest disease incidence was 60.57%. The maximum disease incidence was found in Mysuru district. In Mysuru district, Nanjangud taluk had the highest disease incidence in the cultivar Nanjangud Rasabale followed by the cultivar Ney Poovan. The incidence was more predominant in the year 2017-18 because of the spread of the diseases and continuous growing of susceptible cultivar which led to the increased virulence of the pathogen.


  • Butler, D., 2013, Fungus threatens top banana. Nature News 504(7479), 195.

    Dita, M., Barquero, M., Heck, D., Mizubuti, E.S., Staver, C.P., 2018. Fusarium wilt of banana: Current knowledge on epidemiology and research needs toward sustainable disease management. Frontier of Plant Science 9, 1468.

    Galvez, L.C., Barbosa, C.F., Koh, R.B., Aquino, V.M., 2020. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection of abaca bunchy top virus and banana bunchy top virus in abaca. Crop Protection 131, 105101.

    Goncalves, Z.S., Haddad, F., Amorim, V.B., Ferreira, C.F., Oliveira, S.A., Amorim, E.P., 2019. Agronomic characterization and identification of banana genotypes resistant to Fusarium wilt race 1. European Journal of Plant Pathology 155, 1093−1103.

    Guranna, P., Hegde, R., Ammanaghatta G.B., 2018, In Vitro regeneration of Banana cv. Nanjanagud Rasabale (AAB) by shoot tip Culture. Biotechnology Journal International20(4), 1−9.

    Lambert, J., 2019, Alarm as Devastating Banana Fungus Reaches the Americas. Nature News. 1476−468.

    Li, C., Yang, J., Li, W., Sun J., 2017. Direct root penetration and rhizome vascular colonization by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense are the key steps in the successful infection of Brazil Cavendish. Plant Disease 101(12), 2073-2078.

    Monteiro, J.D., Santos, M., Santos, J.R.P., Cares, J.E., Marchao, R.L., Amorim, E.P., Costa, D.D., 2020. Identification of plant parasitic nematodes in triploid and tetraploid bananas in brazil. Review of Caatinga 33, 865–877.

    Moore, N.Y., Pegg, K.G., Bentley, S., Smith, L.J., 1999, Fusarium wilt of banana: global problems and perspectives. In International Workshop on the Banana Fusarium Wilt Disease, Genting Highlands Resort (Malaysia), INIBAP 11−13.

    Nansamba, M., Sibiya, J., Tumuhimbise, R., Karamura, D., Kubiriba, J., Karamura, E., 2020. Breeding banana (Musa spp.) for drought tolerance. A review of Plant Breeding 139, 685–696.

    Narendrappa, T., Gowda, B.J., 1995. Integrated management of Panama wilt on banana cv. Nanjangud Rasabale. Current Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore 24, 53-55.

    Nascimento, F.D., Sousa, Y.M., Rocha, A.D., Ferreira, C.F., Haddad, F., Amorim, E.P., 2020. Sources of black Sigatoka resistance in wild banana diploids. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 42.

    Ploetz, R.C., 1990, Fusarium wilt of banana. Minnesota, Phytopathology 105, 1512−1521.

    Ploetz, R.C., 2006. Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by several pathogens referred to as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Phytopathology 96(6), 653−656.

    Ploetz, R.C., Jones, D.R., Sebasigari, K., Tushemereirwe, W.K., 1994, Panama disease on East African highland bananas. Fruits (Paris) 49(4), 253−260.

    Ploetz, R.C., Pegg, K.G., 2000. Fungal disease of the root, corm, and pseudostem: Fusarium wilt. In: Jones DR, editor. Diseases of Banana, Abaca and Enset. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 143−159.

    Prasadji, K.J., 2006. Race and vegetative compatibility group of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense isolates in Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology 36(2), 237−240.

    Said, E.M., Mahmoud, R.A., Akshar, R., Safwat, G., 2015. Drought stress tolerance and enhancement of banana plantlets in vitro. Austin Journal of Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2, 1040.

    Sairam, S., Selvarajan, R., Handanahalli, S.S., Venkataraman, S., 2020. Towards understanding the structure of the capsid of Banana Bunchy Top Virus. bioRxiv, 1−2.

    Siamak, S.B., Zheng, S., 2018, Banana Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense) control and resistance, in the context of developing wilt-resistant bananas within sustainable production systems. Horticultural Plant Journal 4(5), 208−218.

    Sivamani, E., Gnanamanickam, S.S., 1987, Distribution of Panama wilt pathogen in Tamil Nadu. Indian Journal of Agriculture Sciences 57, 854−857.

    Stover, R.H., 1962, Fusarial Wilt (Panama Disease) of Banana and Other Musa Species. Kew, Surrey, United Kingdom: Commonwealth Mycological Institute, 117.

    Stover, R.H., Malo, S.E., 1972. The occurrence of Fusarium wilt in normally resistant dwarf Cavendish banana. Plant Diseases. Reporter 56(11),1000-1003

    Studholme, D.J., Wicker, E., Abrare, S.M., Aspin, A., Bogdanove, A., Broders, K., Dubrow, Z., Grant, M., 2020. Transfer of Xanthomonas campestris pv. arecae and X. campestris pv. musacearum to X. vasicola. Phytopathology 110, 1153–1160.

    Thangavelu, R., Palaniswami, A., Ramakrishnan, G., Doraiswamy, S., Muthukrishnan, S., Velazhahan, R., 2001. Involvement of fusaric acid detoxification by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf10 in the biological control of Fusarium wilt of banana caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection 108(5), 433−445.

    Timm, S.E., Pardo, H.L., Coello, P.R., Navarrete, C.T., Villegas, N.O., Ordonez, S.E., 2016. Identification of differentially-expressed genes in response to Mycosphaerella fijiensis in the resistant Musa accession ‘Calcutta-4’using suppression subtractive hybridization. Plos One11, 1–17.

    Vakili, N.G., 1965, Fusarium wilt resistance in seedlings and mature plants of Musa species. Phytopathology 55(2),135-140.

    Willadino, L., Camara, T.R., Ribeiro, M.B., Amaral, D.O.J., Suassuna, F., Silva, M.V.D., 2017. Mechanisms of tolerance to salinity in banana: Physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects. Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura 39, 1–8.


Archith TC, Devappa V, Mesta RK, Honnabyraiah MK, Rudresh DL. Survey on Panama Wilt Disease (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense) of Banana in Mysuru, Mandya and Chamarajanagar Districts of Karnataka IJEP [Internet]. 28May.2021[cited 8Feb.2022];8(1):073-080. Available from: http://www.pphouse.org/ijep-article-details.php?art=275

People also read