Research Article

The Predation Behaviour of Fictor composticola on Parasitic Nematodes of Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

Nishi Keshari and R. S. Kanwar

  • Page No:  751 - 758
  • Published online: 31 Dec 2021
  • DOI : HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/1.2021.2430

  • Abstract
  •  nishinema@gmail.com

In this study, the predation behaviour of male and female predatory nematode, Fictor composticola,was studied on five prey nematode species, Aphelenchus avenae, Aphelenchoides swarupi, Ditylenchus myceliophagus, Bursilla sp. and Panagrolaimus sp., found in the white button mushroom compost.  The period of the study is of six months. The data recorded on number of encounters, part of the body of prey attacked, stage of the prey attacked, duration of feeding etc. The strike rate and prey susceptibility were calculated. The average number of encounters on all the five preys done by female F. composticola was 3.0 and that of the male was 6.0. Male F. composticola had more number of encounters on the prey nematode species than the females. Both the sexes preferred juvenile stages over adults as prey. The most attacked part by both females and males predator, was the posterior part of the prey body. In 80% of cases, female predators fed on the first encountered prey while males attacked the first encountered prey in 30% of cases only. The strike rate of female F. composticola was more (78.6%) than the male (48.2%). Mycophagous nematodes were more susceptible to predator’s attack than the microbivorous nematodes. The strike rate of the predator on different prey nematode species was found more on mycophagous nematodes than on microbivorous nematodes and minimum on Panagrolaimus sp. The average feeding duration of female F. composticola was 8 min and 31 sec and in the case of males it was 4 min and 11 sec.

Keywords :   Fictor composticola, mycophagous nematodes, prey susceptibility, strike rate

  • Introduction

    The mushroom cultivation is growing very fastin India. Although oyster mushroom is easily cultivable and favourable for women (Biswas, 2014),white button mushroom is more popular (Anonymous, 2007). It has many nutritional and medicinal properties (Funda et al., 2017). Insect pests, fungi, bacteria and nematodes are the biotic limiting factors in its cultivation (Singh and Sharma, 2016; Sharma et al., 2019). One of the major limiting factor is, myceliophagous nematodes, reported from many parts of India (Bajaj and Kanwar, 2011; Madhuri and Kanwar, 2016). They can cause a great loss to mushroom cultivation (Keshari and Kranti, 2020). The biocontrol agents are cheaper, non-toxic and provide pollution free control of pests and diseases. Amongst these biocontrol agents, predaceous nematodes has vital role in nematode management (Devi and George, 2018). Biocontrol potential of predatory nematodes was known since Cobb (1917) discovered their possible role in management of plant parasitic nematodes. Cassidy (1931) and Christie (1960) suggested that the predatory nematodes might be useful as biocontrol agents against plant parasitic nematodes. Further studies on this aspect were done by Mulvey (1961); Esser (1963); Esser and Sobers (1964); Ritter and Laumond (1975). The majority of predatory nematodes belong to four major taxonomic groups of nematodes–Mononchida (Ahmad and Jairajpuri, 2015), Dorylaimida, Diplogasterida (Bajaj and Kanwar, 2015) and Aphelenchida. The diplogasterids are an excellent example of predators, feeding on nematodes as well as insects (Bajaj and Tomar, 2015). They are generally found abundantly in decomposing organic manure and predates on different groups of nematodes (Keshari, 2016; Bajaj and Kanwar, 2015). The nematodes can multiply in compost and become active at all stages of composting process (Steel et al., 2013). Their life cycle is short and they can be easily cultured and maintained on simple nutrient media containing bacteria (Yeates, 1969). Their feeding apparatus is cutting and sucking type. Fictor composticola, a diplogasterid predatory nematode was described from mushroom compost from Haryana and Bihar (Khan et al.,2008). It was found as a promising biocontrol agent of mushroom feeding nematodes. Italso managed the root knot nematodes when applied along with organic amendments (Sidhu and Kanwar, 2020). F. composticola predated on the preys by random movement. It fed on any part of the prey body and fed on the contents for 3-4 minutes at a time and became motionless before it shifted to another prey. The main advantage of using diplogasterid predators is their short life cycle, high rate of predation, easy culturing, high fecundity (Bilgrami et al.,2005). They also survive the off-season through the spent mushroom compost (Keshari and Kanwar, 2016). This group of predators remained neglected until Yeates (1969) evaluated the predatory abilities of Mononchus potohikus. They appear to be more prey selective than other groups. Odontopharynx longicaudata attacked and killed  six out of 17 prey species and 100% individuals of Anguina pacificae were killed (Chitamber and Noffsinger, 1989). Successful biocontrol could be achieved if prey nematodes are susceptible to predation. Prey specificity is an important factor in biocontrol. Diplogasterids are highly prey specific (Chitamber and Noffsinger, 1989). Short life cycle and high reproductive potential are important traits of predatory nematodes which are commonly found in diplogasterid predators (Tahseen et al., 1990 and Chitamber and Noffsinger, 1989). The present study was planned to study the predatory behaviour of F. composticola to explore its potential as a biocontrol agent of nematode pests of mushrooms.


  • Materials and Methods

    This research was done in the year 2015 in Department of Nematology, College of Agriculture, CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana as one of the objective of Ph. D. research. One female or male of F. composticola was released with 100 individuals of each of the five prey nematode species i.e., A. avenae, A. swarupi, D. myceliophagus, Bursilla sp. and Panagrolaimus sp. in separate agar plates. The period of the study is of six months. The experiment had ten replications each with male and female F. composticola. Observations were recorded under a stereo-microscope for half an hour after the release of the nematodes. The observations were taken for each male and female F. composticola, separately as number of encounters made by the predator (E), number of encounters resulting in attack (EA), part of the prey body attacked, stage of the prey attacked (juvenile or adult), number of injured and dead preys after the attack and duration of feeding.

    When the predator get a contact with the prey, it was taken as encounter, E and when the predator attacked the prey irrespective of duration, it was EA. If the predator started feeding on the first encountered prey, it was counted as first prey and if it attacked other than first encountered prey, it was counted as other prey and their percentage was calculated respectively out of the total attacks. For taking observations on the part of the prey body attacked, it was divided into three parts i. e., anterior, middle and posterior. The anterior part included up to the oesophagus, the posterior part included the post anal part and the rest was taken as the middle part. The number of parts attacked, was counted and the percentage of each part attacked was calculated. For the stage of the prey, the total number of juveniles and adults attacked were counted and converted into a percentage. The numbers of injured (when a prey was wounded but escaped) and dead prey were counted. The percentage of injured dead prey was calculated out of the total preys attacked.

    On the basis of the above observations, strike rate, prey resistance and prey susceptibility were calculated using the following formulae (Bilgrami and Jairajpuri, 1989).

                                              EA

    % Strike rate (SR%) = –––––– × 100

                                              E

                                                      (EA-AW)

    % Prey resistance (PR%) =–––––––––––× 100    

                                                          EA

    Where

    AW = Attacks resulting into injuries

    % Prey susceptibility (PS%) = 100-PR%


  • Results and Discussion

    3.1.  Predatory behaviour of female Fictor composticola

    3.1.1.  On Aphelenchus avanae

    The female F. composticola started feeding on the prey attacked and after the death of the prey, it continued feeding on the exudating material coming out of the body of the prey. On A. avenae, it encountered 2.4 times in half an hour. It fed the first encountered prey in 90% of cases and in 10% cases, it attacked other than first prey. In 70% of the cases, juveniles of A. avenae were attacked which were encountered during the feeding period and in 30% chances, adults were attacked. It preferred to attack the middle and posterior parts of the prey (about 45% in each case) than the anterior part (9.1%) (Table 1). As a result of feeding, 95% of the attacked prey were killed and 5% of them escaped after injuries. The average feeding duration was found 8 min and 4 sec.


    3.1.2. On Aphelenchoides swarupi

    On A. swarupi, it encountered 2.9 times. It captured the prey in 90% of cases in the first encounter and 10% in other encounters. In 73.1% of cases, juvenile preys were attacked and in 26.9% of cases, adults were attacked. In this species, the anterior, middle and posterior parts of the body of the prey were attacked in 25.9%, 40.8% and 33.3% of prey, respectively. During feeding, 92.3% of the attacked prey died while 7.7% escaped. The mean feeding duration of F. composticola on A. swarupi was 8 min and 56 sec which was the highest feeding duration amongst all the preys tested on female F. composticola

    3.1.3.  On Ditylenchus myceliophagus

    On D. myceliophagus, the mean number of encounters of female F. composticola was 3.2. The predator attacked the first prey encountered in 70% of cases whereas it attacked the other than first prey in 30% chances. It preferred juveniles in 65% and adults in 35%. The posterior part of the preys was the most preferred (50%) part followed by the middle (42.3%) and anterior part (7.7%). In 91.7% of the cases, the attacked prey died while 8.3% were able to escape. The mean feeding duration of F. composticola on D. myceliophagus was recorded 8 min and 26 sec.

    3.1.4.  On Panagrolaimus sp.

    Panagrolaimus sp., a microbivorous nematode, is an agile nematode. In this species, female F. composticola encountered on an average 3.7 times which was the highest number of encounters of the female predator on prey nematodes. On this prey, it attacked the first encountered prey in 80% cases and the other than the first prey in 20% chances. The juveniles were attacked more (77.3%) than the adults (22.7%). The middle part of the prey was preferred more (44%) than the posterior part (36%) and the anterior part was least preferred (20%). Amongst the preys attacked, 85.7% were killed after feeding and 14.3% of these preys were alive but injured. The mean feeding duration of the female predator on this species was 8 min and 30 sec.

    3.1.5.  On Bursilla sp.

    On Bursilla sp., female F. composticola encountered 2.8 times. It captured and attacked the prey in the first encounter in 70% of cases but failed to capture the first prey in 30% of chances. In Bursilla sp., 75% of the attacked individuals were juveniles and 25% were adults. The posterior part of the prey was the most attacked part (50%) than the middle (29.2%) or the anterior (20.8%) part. Amongst the prey attacked, 87.5% were found dead while 12.5% were alive although they were having injuries. The mean feeding duration of the predator on this prey was found 8 min and 38 sec.

    On average, female F. composticola had 3.0 encounters on all the five prey nematode species (A. avenae, A. swarupi, D. myceliophagus, Panagrolaimus sp. and Bursilla sp.). It encountered the first prey in 80% of cases while in 20% cases, the prey other than the first encountered prey. It preferred juveniles (72%) over adults (28%). It preferred the posterior part of the prey (42.9%) to the middle (40.4%) and anterior (16.7%) parts. Among the attacked preys by female F. composticola, 90.4% preys were found dead and 9.6% were escaped after getting injuries. The average feeding duration of female F. composticola on all the five prey nematode species was 8 min and 31 sec. Its feeding behaviour on all five prey nematode species was shown in Annexure I to V.

    3.2.  Predatory behaviour of male Fictor composticola

    The male F. composticola has faster movements as compared to females and also its feeding was not consistent on one prey. During half an hour observation, it encountered many prey nematodes (Table 2) and fed on many of them for a short duration (3–10 sec). It kept on moving in different directions.


    3.2.1.  On Aphelenchus avanae 

    On A. avenae, the male F. composticola encountered 7.1 times on an average and this is the maximum number of encounters done by F. composticola among the five prey nematode species. In only 30% of cases, it attacked the first encountered prey and in 70% of chances it attacked the other than the first prey nematodes. The juveniles were attacked more (96.9%) than the adults (3.1%). The posterior part of the preys was more preferred (59.4%) than the middle or the anterior part (34.4% and 6.2%, respectively) for the attack. The percentage of prey killed due to feeding was 84.8 and while 15.2% were only injured. The mean feeding duration of male F. composticola on A. avenae was 3 min and 49 sec. The feeding behaviour of male F. composticola on all the five prey nematode species was shown in Annexure VI to X.

    3.2.2.  On Aphelenchoides swarupi

    On A. swarupi, the male F. composticola encountered 5.5 times. In only 20% of the chances, it attacked the first prey. Amongst the preys attacked, 75% were juveniles and 25% were adults. Regarding the part of the prey body preferred for feeding, the posterior part was the most preferred (47%) followed by the middle (35.3%) and the anterior (17.6%). Due to feeding, 58.3% of the prey were found dead while 41.7% escaped after injury. The mean feeding duration was 2 min and 31 sec on this prey species. This was the minimum feeding duration among the five prey nematode species.

    3.2.3.  On Ditylenchus myceliophagus

    On D. myceliophagus, the mean number of encounters recorded was 6.0 and it preferred to feed on the prey which were encountered later (70%) as compared to those encountered first (30%). The nematode preferred juvenile prey more (60%) than the adults (40%). The posterior part of the preys was the most preferred (56.7%) over the middle (23.3%) and anterior parts (20%). Amongst the attacked preys, 83.3% were found dead while 16.7% escaped after getting injuries. The mean feeding duration was found 5 min and 42 sec which was the maximum feeding duration among all the five prey nematode species.

    3.2.4.  On Panagrolaimus sp.

    On Panagrolaimus sp., the mean number of encounters done by male F. composticola was 5.6. It fed on other than the first encountered preys in 70% cases and 30% cases, on first encountered prey. The juveniles were preferred (91.7%) over the adults (8.3%) of the prey species. The middle part of the prey body was attacked more in this prey (46.1%) than the posterior (38.5%) or anterior part (15.4%). Among the attacked prey, 75% were dead after feeding by the predator while 25% of them escaped. The mean feeding duration was 5 min and 32 sec in this prey species.

    3.2.5.  On Bursilla sp.

    On Bursilla sp., the number of encounters made by male F. composticola were 5.7 and it preferred to feed on the later encountered prey nematodes (80%) than the first encountered ones (20%). The juveniles were preferred (78.8%) over the adults (21.2%) as prey. The posterior part of the prey was more frequently attacked for feeding (58.3%) than the middle (25%) and the anterior (16.7%) part. Among the prey attacked, 60.6% died due to feeding and 39.4 % of them escaped after injury. The average feeding duration was recorded 4 min and 10 sec in Bursilla sp.

    On average, male F. composticola encountered 6.0 times on all the prey nematode species. It attacked more on the preys (74%) which were encountered other than the first. The juveniles were attacked the most (80.5%) than the adults (19.5%). The posterior part of the preys were the most attacked part (52.0%) than the middle (32.8%) and anterior (15.2%) parts. Among the attacked preys, 72.4% of the preys were found dead while 27.6% were escaped after getting injuries. The average feeding duration of male F. composticola was only 4 min and 11 sec.

    Considering all the five prey nematodes, i.e., A. avenae, A. swarupi, D. myceliophagus, Panagrolaimus sp. and Bursilla sp., the mean number of encounters of male F. composticola were twice the number of encounters made by the female. Male predators attacked the prey which were encountered later whereas female predators attacked the first encountered preys more. Male F. composticola preferred the juveniles over the adults similar to females. Like females, males preferred the posterior part of the prey body more than the anterior part of the prey. Both female and male predators were responsible for the maximum mortality of the prey. The average duration of feeding on the male was half the feeding duration by the female.

    3.3.  Strike rate of Fictor composticola

    The strike rate (SR%) was calculated for male and female F. composticola on all the five prey nematodes, A. avenae, A. swarupi, D. myceliophagus, Panagrolaimus sp. and Bursilla sp. separately and have been shown in Figure 1. The data revealed that the strike rate of female F. composticola was higher than its male counterpart.


    The strike rate of the predator on different prey nematode species was found more on mycophagous nematodes (89.6%) than on microbivorous nematodes and minimum on Panagrolaimus sp. (59.4%). The average strike rate of female F. composticola considering all the prey nematodes together, was 78.6% whereas the strike rate of the male was 48.2%. The strike rate of male F. composticola was the highest (57.9%) on Bursilla sp. and lowest (42.8%) on Panagrolaimus sp. The range of strike rate of the male was lower (42.8-57.9%) as compared to the female (59.4–89.6%).

    Similar was the case with female F. composticola. The PS % of mycophagous nematodes to female F. composticola was higher (95.0%, 92.3% and 91.7% for A. avenae, A. swarupi and D. myceliophagus,respectively) and that of Panagrolaimus sp. and Bursilla sp. to female predator were lower, i.e., 81.8% and 83.3%, respectively. The PS % of all the five prey nematodes to male F. composticola was lower (76.1%) than to female F. composticola (88.8%) however, for all the nematodes it was more than 60%. Thus, the prey resistance of the prey nematodes was less than 40%. The maximum PS % was shown by A. avenae (91.5%) and minimum by Panagrolaimus sp. (72.1%) for both male and female F. composticola.

    The predatory nematodes possess different mechanisms to overpower their prey and to feed upon them. Similarly, the prey nematodes also have characteristics, hereditary or acquired, to defend themselves from predation (Bilgrami, 1990; Jairajpuri and Bilgrami, 1990). Prey was attacked more frequently when the head of the predator made full contact with the prey than when there were glancing contacts.

    Male F. composticola had more encounters on the prey nematode species than the females. It may be because the males did not feed continuously on one prey but they roamed here and there and left many prey without wounding them but females mostly fed on the first encountered prey (70%) continuously. The juveniles of the prey species were preferred more by both male and female F. composticola, than the adults. The juveniles are small in size and have a soft cuticle, so they are more vulnerable to attack.

    The posterior part of the prey body was the most attacked part by both male and female F. composticola. This may be because the posterior part has less mobility and hence show less resistance to predation. The percent of injured prey nematodes in the case of female predators was less than the male predator. The males encountered more prey species but in most of the cases, the prey escaped after probing while females in 80% chances, grasped the first prey, killed and completely consumed it.

    The feeding duration of males was less (2 min. 31 sec in A. swarupi, 5 min. 42 sec in D. myceliophagus, 8 min 4 sec in A. avenae to 8 min 56 sec in A. swarupi) than the females (Tables 1 and 2). The feeding time required to consume an individual depended upon the size of the prey. Probing before the attack was seen in the case of F. composticola, whichhas been described by Grootaert and Wyss (1979). In assessing the effect of predatory nematodes on prey nematode populations the ability to wound the prey, is the important determinant. F. composticola fed the nematodes by cutting and sucking the prey’s body. A wounded prey loses the pressure of the hydrostatic skeleton and hence, locomotion is seriously affected. The lower strike rate in the case of Bursilla sp. and Panagrolaimus sp. (Figure 1) may be due to their active body undulations and vigorous escape response as observed by Small and Grootaert (1983) in Rhabditis oxycerca, Pelodera sp. and Plectus sp. These nematodes have the characteristics providing resistance against predation.

    The strike rate of male and female F. composticola on mycophagous nematodes was higher than on the microbivorous nematodes (Figure 1). Similar results were obtained by Bilgrami (1992) in the dorylaimid predator, Mesodorylaimus bastiani which had a higher strike rate on endoparasitic nematodes than the ectoparasitic, saprophagous and predaceous nematodes. The female F. composticola showed a higher strike rate than the male F. composticola, on all the prey nematode species. This may be due to more energy/food requirements by the female for the reproduction process.

    The prey susceptibility of mycophagous nematodes to F. composticola was higher than the free living nematodes (Figure 2).


    The high susceptibility may be due to their slow rate of movement and thin body cuticle as they lack anti-predation devices (Small and Grootaert, 1983). In the present study, the high degree of susceptibility of mycophagous nematodes, A. avenae, A. swarupi and D. myceliophagus may be attributed to their relatively soft and smooth body cuticles which are easily pierced. The lack of their anti-predation characteristics such as thick cuticle, annulations, sheath and rapid escape also contribute to their high predation (Khan et al.,1994). Because of this predatory behaviour, F. composticola managed the myceliophagous nematodes significantly when inoculated at spawning resulted in good spawn run and maximum yield.


  • Conclusion

    Fictor composticola has a high potential for predation efficiency, the females are more voracious feeder than males. The females fed on the whole prey body whereas male fed the prey for a shorter time on many preys. Thus, the feeding duration of females was more than the males. It can be concluded that females were more potential feeder than males. This character can be used for the further studies in biological control of mushroom nematodes for eco- friendly management.


  • Reference
  • Ahmad, W., Jairajpuri, M.S., 2010. Mononchida, the predaceous nematodes. In: Hunt, D.J., Perry, R.N. (Eds), Nematology monographs and perspectives, Vol-7, Brill academic Publishers, Netherlands.

    Anonymous, 2007. Perspective Plan Vision-2025, NRCM, 48pp. Available at http://www.nrcmushroom.com. Accessed on 25th September, 2021.

    Bajaj, H.K., Kanwar, R.S., 2011. Nematode infestations in mushrooms. In: Khan, M.R., jairajpuri, M.S. (Eds.), Nematode infestations part III : Horticultural crops. NAS, Allahabad, India. pp-357–382.

    Bajaj, H.K., Kanwar, R.S., 2015. Biology and predatory attributes of a diplogasterid nematode, Fictor composticola. Helminthologia 52, 50–57.

    Bajaj, H.K., Tomar, V.V.S., 2015. Description of diplogasterid nematodes (Nematoda:Diplogasterida) inhabiting synconia of Ficus species in Haryana, India. Indian Jouranl of Nematology 45, 23–38.

    Bilgrami, A.L., 1990. Predacious Dorylaims. In: Jairajpuri, M.S., Alam, M.M., Ahmad, I. (Eds.), Nematode bio-control, aspects and prospects. Delhi, India. CBS Publishers: 143–148.

    Bilgrami, A.L., 1992. Resistance and susceptibility of prey nematodes to predation and strike rate of the predators, Mononchus aquaticus, Dorylaimus stagnalis and Aquatides thornei. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 15, 265–270.

    Bilgrami, A.L., Jairajpuri, M.S., 1989. Resistance of prey to predation and strike rate of the predators of Mononchoides longicaudatus and M. fortidens (Nematoda : Diplogasterida). Revue de Nematologie 12, 45–49.

    Bilgrami, A.L., Gaugler, R., Brey, C., 2005. Prey preference and feeding behaviour of the diplogasterid predator Mononchoides gaugleri (Nematoda : Diplogasterida). Nematology 7, 333–342.

    Biswas, M.K., 2014. Oyster mushroom cultivation : a women friendly profession for the development of rural West Bengal. International Journal of Bio-resources and Stress Management, 432–435.

    Cassidy, E.H., 1931. Some mononchs of Hawaii. Hawaiian Planters 35, 305–339.

    Chitambar, J.J., Noffsinger, M., 1989. Predacious behaviour and life history of Odontopharynx longicaudata (Diplogasterida). Journal of Nematology 21, 284–291.

    Christei, J.R., 1960. Biological control-predaceous nematodes. In: Sasser, J.M., Jenkins W.R. (Eds.), Nematology : Fundamentals and recent advances with emphasis on plant parasitic and soil forms. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 466–468.

    Cobb, N.A., 1917. The mononchs (Mononchus Bastian 1865): a genus of free-living predatory nematodes. Soil science 3, 431–486.

    Devi, G., George, J., 2018.  Predatory nematodes as bio-control agent against plant parasitic nematode-A review. Agricultural Reviews 39, 55–61.

    Esser, R.P., 1963. Nematode interactions in plates of no sterile water agar. Proceedings on soil crop science society  Florida 23, 121–128.

    Esser, R.P., Sobers, E.K., 1964. Natural enemies of nematodes. Proceedings of the Soil and CropScience Society of Florida 24, 326–353.

    Funda, A., Owaid, M.N., Shariati, M.A., 2017. The nutritional and medical benefits of Agaricus bisporus : A review. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences7, 281–286. Doi-10.15414/jmbfs.2017/18.7.3.281-286.

    Grootaert, P., Wyss, U., 1979. Ultrastructure and function of anterior region feeding apparatus in Mononchus aquaticus. Nematologica 25, 163–173.

    Jairajpuri, M.S., Bilgrami, A.L., 1990. Predatory Nematodes. In: Jairajpuri, M.S., Alam, M.D., Alam, I. (Eds.), Nematode Biocontrol : Aspects and Prospects. New Delhi, CBS Publishers and Distributers Pvt. Ltd, : 95–125.

    Keshari, N., 2016. Predatory behaviour of Fictor composticola Khan et al. and its potential for the management of nematode pests of button mushroom. Dissertation, CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Haryana, India.

    Keshari, N., Kanwar, R.S., 2016. Survival of predatory nematode Fictor  composticola Khan et al. in agar plates and spent mushroom compost. Geobios 43, 19–32.

    Keshari, N., Kranti, K.V.V.S., 2020. Integrated management of phytopathogenic nematodes infesting mushroom. In: Ansari, R., Rizwi, R., Mahmood, I. (Eds.), Management of phytonematodes : recent advances and future challenges, Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.10007/978-981-15-4087-5-7.

    Khan, Z., Bilgrami, A.L., Jairajpuri, M.S., 1994. Attraction and food preference behaviour of predatory nematodes, Allodorylaimus americanus and Discolaimus silvicolus (Nematoda : Dorylaimida). Indian Journal of Nematology 24, 168–175.

    Khan, R., Bajaj, H.K., Sultana, R., Tahseen, Q., 2008. Description of Diplogastrellus gracilis (Butschli, 1876) Paramonov, 1952, D. sikorai sp. n. and Fictor composticola sp. n. (Nematoda: Diplogastrina) from India. Nematology 10, 153–166.

    Madhuri., Kanwar, R.S., 2016. Relative susceptibility of some mushroom strains to Aphelenchoides swarupi and nematode reproduction on them. International Research Journal of natural and Applied Science 3, 208–219.

    Mulvey, R.H., 1961. The mononchidae : A family of predacious nematodes. I. Genus Mylonchulus (Enoplida : Mononchidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 39, 665–696.

    Ritter, M., Laumond, C., 1975. Review of the use of nematodes in biological control programs against parasites and pests of cultivated plants. Butl. Des. Resch. Agrono. Des. Gem. San, D’Elude Agric. Hijej Des Plants 331–334.

    Sharma, A., Khanna, A.S., Raina, R., Kapoor, R., Thakur, K.S., 2019. Faunistic survey of insect pest associated with Agaricus bisporus. International Journal of Economic Plants122–125. doi: https ://doi.org/10.23910/IJEP/2019.6.3.0321.

    Sidhu, H.S., Kanwar, R.S., 2020. Integration of some organic amendments and the predatory nematode, Fictor composticola for the management of Meloidogyne incognita in cucumber. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control 30, 146. https://doi.org/10.1186/341938-020-00349-3.

    Singh, U.A., Sharma, K., 2016. Pests of mushroom. Advance Crop Science Technology  4, 1–6.

    Small, R.W., Grootaert, P., 1983. Observations on the predation abilities of some soil dwelling predatory nematodes. Nematologica 29, 109–118.

    Steel, H., verdoodt, F., Cerevkova, A., Couvreur, M., Fonderie, P., Moens, T., Bert, W., 2013. Survival and colonisation of nematodes ina  composting process. Inveretebrate Biology  132, 108–119.

    Tahseen, Q., Jairajpuri, M.S., Ahmad, I., 1990. The life cycle of Mononchoides fortidens with emphasis on gonad development. Nematologica 36, 440–447.

    Yeates, G.W., 1969. Predation by Mononchoides potohikus (Nematoda:Diplogasteridae) in laboratory culture. Nematologica 15, 1–9.


People also read

Short Research

Preference Towards Online Mode of Distance Education Courses–conjoint Analysis

M. Malarkodi, V. M. Indumathi and S. Praveena

Conjoint analysis, distance education, preference, online learning

Published Online : 07 Feb 2018

Review Article

Cereal Residues - Not a Waste Until We Waste it: A Review

Amit Anil Shahane and Yashbir Singh Shivay

Cereal residue, ecological services, energy source, residue burning

Published Online : 07 Feb 2016