Research Article

Seed Priming and Priming Duration Influence on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  under Rainfed Condition of Hilly Uttarakhand

Mayank Singh Panwar, R. G. Upadhyay, Ajay Kumar and Arunima Paliwal

  • Page No:  121 - 124
  • Published online: 30 Apr 2021
  • DOI : HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/1.2021.2180

  • Abstract
  •  ajay25912@rediffmail.com

Insufficient stand establishment of winter wheat is a major problem in the rainfed region of the Uttarakhand hills. In order to increase germination and early establishment in the field under rainfed condition of hilly tracts this study was conducted at college of forestry VCSG University of  Horticulture and Forestry, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India. The ten treatments were laid out in randomized block design with three replications in field. The treatments were VL 892 primed for 12 hrs with normal water, VL 892 primed for 24 hrs with normal water, VL 892 primed for 12 hrs with lemon water, VL 892 primed for 24 hrs with lemon water, VL 829 primed for 12 hrs with normal water, VL 829 primed for 24 hrs with normal water, VL 829 primed for 12 hrs with lemon water, VL 829 primed for 24 hrs with lemon water, VL 892 with no priming, and VL 829 with no priming. Significantly higher grain Yield of wheat was recorded in VL  829 primed with normal water for 24 hours which was statistically on par with VL 829 primed for 12 hrs with normal water, VL 892 primed for 24 hrs with normal water and VL 892 primed for 12 hrs with normal water. Significantly higher grain yield was recorded in case of priming with normal water than the priming with lime water.

Keywords :  Wheat, priming, priming duration

  • Introduction

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is important staple food for the 40% of world’s populations (Peng et al., 2011). Wheat provides 21% of the food calories and 20% of the protein for more than 4.5 billion people in 94 countries (Braun et al., 2010). In India wheat is the second most important cereal crop after rice and plays a key role in food and nutritional security (Anonymous, 2015).

    In Uttarakhand 39.97% area of wheat was under rainfed during 2015-16. The hill districts of Uttarakhand had 80% area of wheat under rainfed whereas in plains only 2.17% area of wheat under rainfed. The wheat productivity of hilly area (10.29 q ha-1) was 3.4 times lower than the productivity of plains (35.13 q ha-1) (Anonymous, 2017). Moisture stress is a major problem in lower productivity of wheat in Uttarakhand. Rapid germination is important for satisfactory stands whereas late germination may lead to a lower yield. Moisture stress can have drastic effects on wheat during various periods of plant development, particularly at germination. Low moisture content in the field after the harvest of finger millet in the hilly tracts adversely affects the germination of wheat seed and early establishment. Thus, screening of wheat varieties, that are more moisture stress tolerant, determining the higher rate of germination and emergence under rainfed are essential. In order to improve crop growth and yield under rainfed conditions seed soaking is a procedure that partially hydrates seed to initiate the germination process which are known to seed priming that leads to better germination rate, growth and seed yield (Eskridge et al., 2014). Therefore to find economically viable solution for the resource poor farmer of Uttarakhand hills, this experiment was conducted.


  • Materials and Methods

    An experiment was conducted during rabi, 2016 at Crop Improvement Research Block and Seed Testing Laboratory at Department of Seed Science and Technology, V.C.S.G. Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, College of Forestry, Ranichauri into determine the effect of seed priming and priming duration on growth and seed yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ten treatments viz. T1: VL 892 primed for 12 hrs with normal water, T2: VL 892 primed for 24 hrs with normal water, T3: VL 892 primed for 12 hrs with lemon water, T4: VL 892 primed for 24 hrs with lemon water, T5: VL 829 primed for 12 hrs with normal water,T6: VL 829 primed for 24 hrs with normal water, T7: VL 829 primed for 12 hrs with lemon water, T8: VL 829 primed for 24 hrs with  lemon water, T9: VL 892  with no priming, and T10: VL 829  with no priming were laid out in randomized complete block design with three replication in field. The crop was sown in lines 20 cm apart with plant to plant distance 7.5 cm on 17.11.2016 and harvested on 27.05.2017. The soil was silty clay loam of medium depth with acidic pH (5.4) having 0.76% organic carbon, 208 kg ha-1 available N, 16.24 kg ha-1 available P and 418 kg ha-1 available K. The climate of College of Forestry is humid and temperate type with chilled winter. The total precipitation during the crop season was recorded 349.8 mm in 25 rainy days during rabi 2016-17, whereas the maximum temperature varied between 2.6 to 28.8°C in rabi 2016-17 during cropping season. Similarly minimum temperature varied between -1.6to 16.3°C during rabi season of 2016-17. The crop was raised using standard package and practices recommended for the region. The crop was fertilized with NPK @ 100:60:40 kg ha-1 using Urea, DAP and MOP. Data on yield attributes and yield were recorded using standard procedure. The data was statistically analyzed using STPR-1 designed by Department of Mathematics and Statistics of GBPUA&T, Pantnagar.


  • Results and Discussion

    The results showed that the highest field germination percent was recorded in VL 829 primed for 24 hrs with normal water followed by VL 892 primed for 24 hrs with normal water and VL 829 primed for 12 hrs with normal water and lowest germination percent were recorded in treatments without priming (Table 1). Similar result was found by Meena et al. (2013) in wheat and Moghanibashi et al. (2012) in sunflower. VL 829 gave higher germination percent than VL 892. The germination percent was higher in VL 829 as it recorded higher test weight (Table 2) than the VL 892. Ahirwar et al. (2012) also reported that large sized Alangium lamarckii seed gave maximum germination than medium sized grain. There was significant improvement in germination under primed treatments than non-primed treatments in field condition (Table 1).



    The significantly higher plant height and dry matter accumulation at 60 DAS was recorded in all primed treatments except VL 892 and VL 829 with no priming. The effect of priming and priming duration on plant height and dry matter accumulation at 60 DAS were more on VL 829 than VL 892. Patra et al. (2016) also reported that 16 hours of hydropriming resulted highest number of wheat tiller than none primed.

    3.2.  Yield attributes and yield

    All yield attributing characters except length of spike were improved in priming treatments than the non-priming treatments.  The yield attributing characters i.e. number of spike per meter row length, number of spikelet per spike and filled grain per spike were recorded significantly higher in VL 829 primed for 24 hours with normal water than the non primed VL 892 and VL 829. The similar results were also reported by Meena et al. (2018) in wheat. All primed treatments recorded statistically at par number of spike per meter row length, number of spikelet per spike and filled grain per spike (Table 2). The test weight of VL 892 was recorded significantly higher than the VL 829. The test weight of VL 829 primed for 24 hours with normal water was recorded significantly higher than the VL 892.The priming for 24 hour with normal water gave higher yield than priming for 12 hours and was statistically on par. Mohamed et al., 2019 also reported that 24 hours priming duration is better than other duration in wheat. Ali and Sajed, 2009 also reported similar results in case of chickpea. Significantly higher grain yield of wheat recoded in VL 829 primed for 24 hrs with normal water which was statistically on par with VL 829 primed for 12 hrs with normal water, VL 892 primed for 24 hrs with normal water and VL 892 primed for 12 hrs with normal water. Significantly higher grain yield was recorded in case of priming with normal water than the priming with lime water. Hydropriming for 8 hours provided higher seed yield of faba bean was reported by Damalas et al. (2019).Similar results were also recorded in straw yield and biological yield of wheat. The harvest index was not affected by the priming treatments. Mehri et al. (2015) and Muzaffar et al., 2019 also reported seed priming by H2O increased yield and yield components.


  • Conclusion

    Seed priming with normal water for 24 hour in VL 829 increase germination, plant establishment, plant growth, yield of wheat under rainfed condition of Uttarakhand.


  • Acknowledgement

    Authors acknowledge the College of Forestry, VCSG Uttarakhand University of Horticulture and Forestry, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal for providing infrastructural and financial support.


  • Reference
  • Ahirwar, J.R., 2012. Effect of seed size and weight on seed germination of Alangium lamarckii, Akola, India. Research Journal of Recent Sciences 1(02), 320−322.

    Ali, E., Sajed, G.A., 2009. Effects of seed priming on growth and yield of chickpea under saline soil. Recent Research in Science and Technology 1(6), 282–286.

    Anonymous, 2017. Uttarakhand Agriculture Statistics Data, Rabi 2016-17. page 21, Accessed 23 October 2020.

    Braun, H.J., Atlin, G., Payne, T., 2010. Multi-location testing as a tool to identify plant response to global climate change.  In: Reynolds, C.R.P. (Ed), Climate change and crop production, CABI, London, UK, 115–138.

    Damalas, C.A., Koutroubas, S.D., Fotiadis, S., 2019. Hydro-priming effects on seed germination and field performance of Faba bean in spring sowing. Agriculture 9(9), 201.

    Eskridge, E.S., 2014. Assessing the effects of soil moisture on germination of winter wheat. Thesis, U.G. University of Nebraska-Lincoln 24 p.

    Anonymous, 2015. ICAR-IIWBR–Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research, Vision 2050. https://krishi.icar.gov.in/jspui/bitstream/123456789/3592/3/IIWBR-Vision%202050.pdf.  Accessed in January 2021

    Meena, R.P., Sharma, R.K., Sendhil, R., Tripathi, S.C., Chander, S., 2018. Quantifying water productivity using seed priming and micro irrigation in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Wheat and Barley Research 10(1), 20–24.

    Meena, R.P., Sendhil R.S.C., Tripathi, S.C., Chhokar, R.S., Sharma, R.K., 2013. Hydro priming of seed improves the water use efficiency, grain yield and net economic return of wheat under different moisture regimes. SAARC Journal of Agriculture 11(2), 149–159.

    Mehri, S., 2015. Effect of seed priming on yield and yield components of soybean.Am-Euras. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences 15(3), 399–403.

    Moghanibashi, M., Karimmojeni, H., Nikneshan, P., Behrozi, D., 2012. Effect of hydropriming on seed germination indices of sunflower under salt and drought conditions. Plant Knowledge Journal 1(1), 10-15.

    Mohamed, A., El-Banna, M.F., Gadalla, S., Khafagy, M., 2019. The Role of Grain Priming andits Duration on Wheat Germination and Seedling Growth. Journal of Plant Production 10(4), 343-349.

    Muzaffar, W., Ahmad, R., Hussain, M., Farooq, M., Wakeel, A., 2019. Influence of seed priming and sowing methods on growth and productivity of wheat cultivars differing in seed size in rice-wheat cropping system of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 21, 803–809.

    Patra, S.S., Mehera, B., Rout, S., Tomar, S.S., Singh, M. Kumar, R., 2016. Effect of hydropriming and different sowing dates on growth and yield attributes of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  Journal of Applied and Natural Science 8(2), 971–980.

    Peng, J., Sun, D., Nevo, E., 2011. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, occupies a pivotal position in wheat domestication. Australian Journal of Crop Science 5, 1127-1143.


Cite

1.
Panwar MS, Upadhyay RG, Kumar A, Paliwal A. Seed Priming and Priming Duration Influence on Growth and Yield of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  under Rainfed Condition of Hilly Uttarakhand IJBSM [Internet]. 30Apr.2021[cited 8Feb.2022];12(1):121-124. Available from: http://www.pphouse.org/ijbsm-article-details.php?article=1464

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