Research Article

The Value of the Stay-green Traits with Grain Yield of Post Flowering Drought Tolerance in Rabi Sorghum

D. Dev Kumar, V. Padma, H. S. Talwar and Farzana Jabeen

  • Page No:  059 - 063
  • Published online: 27 Feb 2021
  • DOI : HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/1.2021.2153

  • Abstract
  •  ddevkumar45@gmail.com

An experiment was conducted during rabi 2012-13 at research farm of Indian Institute of Millet Research (IIMR), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telengana State, India. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design, replicated thrice, with 10 Sorghum genotypes as main treatment Well-watered (WW) and Water-stress (WS) conditions) to examine the potential of Sorghum genotypes to adapt to the post flowering drought. 10 genotypes are sub-treatments CRS 4, CRS 19, CRS 20, PEC 17, CSV 18, M 35-1, Phule chitra, Phule moulee, EP 57 and CRS 1). Among the four stages viz., 10, 20, 30 and 40 days after flowering (DAF), the GLAR (stay green trait) at 10 DAF had a positive and higher significant correlation with grain yield (r=0.66). So, GLAR at 10 DAF is most appropriate stage to screen for post flowering drought tolerance. Among the yield components, number of grains per panicle, grain weight panicle-1 and harvest index (HI) are significantly and positively correlated with grain yield and therefore it can be ascribed that the genotypes, which partitioned more assimilates into economic parts and in which grain filling is high, recorded more grain yield. The overall yield reduction due to moisture stress during the post flowering drought was 10% and it ranged between 8-12% among the genotypes. This indicates that the genotypes used in the present study are relatively drought tolerant. The genotypes CSV 18 and Phule moulee registered least yield reduction (8%) in grain yield due to post flowering drought followed by PEC 17 and M 35-1 which registered 9% yield reduction. However, the overall grain yield of PEC 17 and M 35-1 was more than CSV 18 and Phule moulee even under moisture stress conditions.

Keywords :   Leaf area, green leaf area retention, grain yield, rabi sorghum

  • Introduction

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is ranks fifth in the major grain crops in production, area harvested, and yield worldwide (Anonymous, 2017) and more than 300 million people use it as a staple food, particularly in developing semiarid tropical areas.   Sorghum is the sixth most planted crop in the world, and it is one of the most important cereals used as a staple food for those primarily living in arid and semiarid areas (Zhao et al., 2019). It is consumed mostly in northern China, India, and southern Russia, where about 85% of the crops are consumed directly as human food. Sorghum has greater drought tolerance, soil toxicities, and temperature variation than other cereals and requires minimal fertilizers for cultivation, thus playing a critical role for food security in some semiarid areas of Asia, Africa, and Latin America (Kumar et al., 2017).

    Drought is an extended abnormal dry period that occurs in a region consistently receiving a below-average rainfall. Globally, agriculture is the biggest consumer of water. The growth, development, and reproduction of plants require sufficient water. Drought is a complex environmental stress and major constraint to crop productivity (Mishra and Singh 2010). The early vegetative stage and reproductive stages (pre flowering and post flowering) of sorghum are vulnerable to the effects of water deficit (Kebede et al., 2001). Stay-green Sorghum genotypes maintain photosynthetically active leaf area better than genotypes that do not posses this trait under limited soil moisture during grain filling stage. Identify the key adaptive traits associated with post flowering drought in rabi season. (Borrell et al., 2000).

    The aim of this research is to study the rabi sorghum, water-stress is one of the major factors limiting the crop growth and ultimately the production under rainfed farming. Certain species of sorghum have a versatile characteristic of withstanding the drought condition and thus having a genetic potential to defend the stress condition. In the present investigation, some of the existing and recently released cultivars of sorghum are taken to test their water-stress tolerance. These cultivars are presently used extensively in the commercial production in Indian farmers.


  • Materials and Methods

    2.1.  Location and experimental site            

    This investigation was conducted during winter (rabi) season, 2012-2013 at the research farm of Indian Institute of Millet Research (IIMR), Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, Telengana state, India located at Latitude 17°19’ N, Longitude 78°28’ E and at an altitude of 542 m above the Mean Sea Level. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design, replicated thrice, with  10 Sorghum genotypes as main treatment (well-watered and water-stress conditions) and with 10 genotypes are sub treatments CRS 4, CRS 19, CRS 20, PEC 17, CSV 18, M 35-1,   Phule chitra, Phule moulee, EP 57 and CRS 1).

    2.2.  Weather during the crop growth period

    To characterize the weather conditions during the crop growing season, the meteorological parameters were recorded from a B – class meteorological observatory located at nearby experimental site.

    During the Sorghum crop growth period (01-10-2012 to 12-2-2013) the mean weekly maximum temperature ranged from 27.5 to 32.6°C with an average of 30°C. The mean weekly minimum temperature ranged from 11.0 to 21.9°C with an average of 16.1°C. Relative humidity forenoon and afternoon during the crop growing period fluctuated between 67–94% and 27–69%, respectively. The mean weekly bright sunshine hours per day varied from 3.0 to 9.9 hours with an average of 8.0 hour. Likewise the mean weekly wind velocity ranged from 1.2 to 4.8 km h-1 with an average of 3.0 km h-1.

    The mean pan evaporation from USWB Class A pan evaporimeter during the cropping period ranged from 2.6 to 4.5 mm d-1 with an average of 4.0 mm d-1. The total rainfall received during the cropping period was only 5.0 mm. Thus it is evident that the moisture was insufficient for active plant growth and that there was no interference of rain during the post flowering drought period and that there is a need for the irrigation water application.

    2.3.  Soil characteristics of the experimental site

    The soil type of the experimental site is a vertisol with pH of 7.94, available nitrogen of 290 kg ha-1, available phosphorus of 28 kg P2O5 ha-1, available potassium of 624 kg ha-1, organic carbon of 0.62% and organic matter content was low.

    2.4.  Data to be recorded

    Average number of leaves having more than 50% green was calculated at the stage of flowering. Stay green type plants were scored during stress conditions on 0 - 9 scale. Where  0 = fully green top six leaves, 9 = fully senescent top six leaves, This observation was recorded at 10, 20, 30, 40 Days After Flowering. Average number of grains per panicle, grain weight per panicle taken at the time after harvesting. All the panicles form the net plot (3×1.2 m2) area in all treatments were harvested (Kg ha-1). Harvest index was calculated by using the formula given by Donald (1962).

    2. 5.  Statistical analysis

    2.5.1.  Analysis of variance

    The data for different characters were statistically analyzed using split plot design (Panse and Sukhatme, 1967). Wherever the treatment differences were found significant, (‘F’ test) critical difference was worked out at 5% probability level and the values furnished. The treatment differences that were not significant were denoted by “NS”.

    Significance of correlation coefficients were tested by comparing correlation coefficients with the table values (Fisher and Yates, 1965) at (n-2) degrees of freedom at 5%. Where “n” denotes the number of treatments used in the calculation.


  • Results and Discussion

    3.1.  No. of leaves plant-1

    The interaction between the treatments and genotypes was significant and among the genotypes presented in table 2PEC 17 recorded the highest number of leaves in both well-watered (13) and water-stress (12) conditions. The genotype V1 (Phule Yashoda) was recorded significantly highest mean number of leaves plant-1 (3.95) and mean leaf area plant-1 (14.82), while significantly lowest was observed in V5 (Phule Anuradha). These results are in agreement with the finding of (Zhang et al., 2004), Abdalla and El- Khoshiban, (2007). Effects of water-stress on growth/ morphological parameters such as leaf area, number of leaves and girth (diameter) have been documented by (Zhang et al., 2004); Abdalla and El-Khoshiban, (2007).

    3.2.  Green leaf area retention (GLAR)

    The interaction between genotypes and stress treatments was significant and among the genotypes PEC 17 recorded at 10 DAF recorded highest green leaf area retention in well-watered (1883) and water-stress (1521) conditions presented in Table 1.


    The lowest green leaf area retention in well-watered (1337) and water-stress (1121) conditions was observed in the genotype CRS 1. Similar results were observed at 20, 30 and 40 DAF. These results are in conformity to the reduction in leaf area would limit the development of plant transpiration surface and keeps sink demand well balanced with plant assimilatory capacity (Bayoumi et al., 2008). Similarly, genotype V1 (Phule Yashoda) recorded significantly highest mean leaf area index (2.20). Earlier studies also indicated similar observations with particular reference to sorghum grown under water-stress condition (Sonawane et al. (2008).

    3.3.  Yield and yield attributes

    3.3.1.  Grain weight panicle-1 (g)

    The interaction between genotypes and treatments was significant and among the genotypes depicted in Table 2. PEC 17 recorded highest grain weight per panicle in water-stress (59 g) and well-watered (62 g) conditions. The lowest grain weight per panicle in water-stress (35 g) and well-watered (38 g) conditions was observed in the genotype CRS1.


    3.3.2.  Number of grains panicle-1

    The interaction between genotypes and water-stress treatments was also significant and among the genotypes PEC 17 recorded highest number of grain per panicle in water-stress (1145) and well-watered (1256) conditions. The lowest number of grain per panicle in water-stress (937) and well-watered (993) conditions were observed in the genotype CRS1 depicted in Table 2. Number of grains per panicle has a positive correlation with grain yield in Sorghum (Kadam et al., 2002 and Awari et al., 2003). A close observation of the data indicated that in drought susceptible genotypes, the grain number per panicle was more affected and the effect of stress appeared to be direct one on this parameter. These finding are in agreement with the results of Nouri et al.(2004). Pawar et al.(2005) reported that the number of grains per panicle greatly contributed to the total grain yield.

    3.3.3 Grain yield (kg ha-1)

    The interaction between genotypes and water-stress treatments was also significant and among the genotypes PEC 17 recorded highest grain yield in water-stress (1082 kg ha-1) and well-watered (1192 kg ha-1) conditions. The lowest grain yield in water-stress (772 kg ha-1) and well-watered (875 kg ha-1) conditions was observed in the genotype CRS1 depicted in Table 2.  The positive correlation between number of leaves and grain yield of sorghum correlation study also indicated that LAI had significant positive association with grain yield (Pawar and Jadhav, 1996).

    3.3.4.  Harvest index

    The interaction between genotypes and treatments indicate significant difference. Among the genotypes PEC 17 recorded highest harvest index in water-stress (35%) and well-watered (37%) conditions. The lowest harvest index in water-stress (22%) and well-watered (24%) conditions was observed in the genotype CRS1 depicted in Table 2.  Harvest index is the most important factor in determining the grain yield, which indicates the partitioning ability of total dry matter to the developing grains (Channaoppagoudar et al., 2008). The genotypes 296 B and ICSV 75 with lower HI (10.4-10.5%) resulted in poor yields of 66.1 and 77.3 g m-2, respectively (Chimmad and Kamatar, 2003).


  • Conclusion

    The decrease in grain yield was 10% due to post flowering moisture stress. This indicate that the genotype used are relative drought tolerance. Based on the above, it is inferred that the genotypes PEC 17, M35-1 and CSV 18 are more efficient because of improved morpho-phenological, biophysical and chemical characters. The genotype PEC 17 can withstand drought situation and yield better because of physiological manipulations.


  • Reference
  • Abdalla, M.M., El-Khoshiban, N.H., 2007. The influence of water-stress on growth, relative water content, photosynthetic pigments, some metabolic and hormonal contents of Triticum aestivum cultivars. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 34(3), 2062–2074.

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    Awari, V.R., Gadakh, S.R., Shinde, M.S., Kusalkar, D.V., 2003. Correlation study of morpho-physiological and yield contributing characters with grain yield in sorghum. Annals of Plant Physiology 17(1), 50–52.

    Bayoumi, T.Y., Eid, M.H., Metwali, E.M., 2008. Application of physiological and biochemical indices as a screening technique for drought tolerance in wheat genotypes. African Journal Biotechnology 7, 2341–2352.

    Borrell, A.K., Hammer, G.L., 2000. Nitrogen dynamics and Physiological basis of staygreen in sorghum. Crop Science.40, 1295–1307.

    Channappagoudar, B.B., Biradar, T.D., Bhara, M., Rokhade, C.J., 2008. Morpho-physiological traits of sorghum parental lines determining grain yield and biomass. Karnataka Journal Agricultural Sciences 21(2), 168–170.

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    Kadam, G.N., Gadakh, S.R., Awari, V.R., 2002. Physiological analysis of rabi sorghum genotypes for shallow soil. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural University 27(3) 274–276.

    Kebede, H., Subudhi, P. K., Rosenow, D.T., Nguyen, H.T., 2001. Quantitative trait loci influencing drought tolerance in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Theoritical and Applied Genetics 103, 266–276.

    Kumar, V.S., Sajeevkumar, V., George, J., Kumar, S., 2017. Enhancing properties of polyvinyl alcohol film using sorghum starch nanocrystals – a cost effective filler from natural source. Defence Life Science Journal 2(2), 169–177.

    Mishra, A.K., Singh, V.P., 2010. A review of drought concepts. Journal of Hydrology 391, 202–216.

    Nouri, M., Stephen, C.M., Lyon, D.J., Prabhakar, D., 2004. Yield components of pearl millet and grain sorghum across environments in the central great plains. Journal of Maharashtra Agricultural Universities 27(3), 274–276.

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Cite

1.
Kumar DD, Padma V, Talwar HS, Jabeen F. The Value of the Stay-green Traits with Grain Yield of Post Flowering Drought Tolerance in Rabi Sorghum IJBSM [Internet]. 27Feb.2021[cited 8Feb.2022];12(1):059-063. Available from: http://www.pphouse.org/ijbsm-article-details.php?article=1448

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