Research Article

Factors Influencing the Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers in Rural and Urban Areas in Roorkee Taluk, Uttarakhand State

Pooja and Ganga V. Yenagi

  • Page No:  183 - 187
  • Published online: 30 Apr 2020
  • DOI : HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/IJBSM/2020.11.2.2066a

  • Abstract
  •  pooja38339@gmail.com

Teachers are considered as a strongest pillar of our society. They play an important role in the growth and development of a nation by imparting knowledge and skills to young minds. As teachers are very important in any educational institution, there is a need to track on their performance, attitude and feelings. It is a management’s believe that “satisfied teachers can turn their institutions towards success” so it is very important for each and every management to identify whether their employees are really satisfied or not?. Hence, in this article an attempt has been made to identify the factors that influence the job satisfaction of primary school teachers. The present study is aimed to assess the job satisfaction of primary school teachers in Roorkee taluk of Uttarakhand state on a sample of 120 teachers. The job satisfaction was assessed by the job Satisfaction Questionnaire  The findings were drawn after descriptive analysis and computed Mean, Standard Deviation and Pearson correlation. Results revealed that majority of the teachers exhibited high level of job satisfaction. The correlation analysis revealed that work experience and monthly salary had positive and significant relationship with job satisfaction of teachers in rural and urban areas while age and educational qualification of the teachers had non-significant relationship with their job satisfaction. It also revealed that teachers from government school and with higher monthly salary exhibited higher job satisfaction as compared to their counterpart. There was no gender difference found in job satisfaction of primary school teachers in both rural and urban areas.

Keywords :   Job satisfaction, primary school teachers, work experience and salary

  • Introduction

    Education is widely recognized as one indicator of development. One of the basic purposes of education is to produce trained  and skilled human resource, which can overcome development impediments of a given country. To achieve this, there should be satisfied teachers  in every educational institution. The feat of every society, in general, depends on the education system that is run in that nation. Education can be fruitful and efficient if teachers do play their crucial roles in guaranteeing the educational achievements that are persuaded by the education system (Fives and Gill, 2015).  As the teachers are very important in any educational institution it is vital to track on their performance, attitude and feelings. Every management believes that “satisfied teachers can bring their institution success” so it is very important for every management to identify whether their employees are really satisfied or not? (Velmurugan, 2016).

    The term job satisfaction has been used in various ways, most often job satisfaction and job attitude are interchangeably. Both are the effective reactions of the incumbent towards the job work situation. Job satisfaction is the attitudes and feelings people have about their jobs. It is positive or favorable attitudes about the work and the work environment indicate job satisfaction, and the inverse, referring to negative or unfavorable attitudes towards the work indicate job dissatisfaction (Armstrong, 2006). In other words, job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well, enthusiasm and happiness with one’s work. Teacher job satisfaction is a function of the perceived relation between what one wants from teaching, and what one perceives teaching is offering to a teacher. In general, it is the overall attitude and views of teachers toward their working conditions and profession. As satisfied and motivated teachers are important for any educational system. It differs from person to person, institution to institution and even in the context of male and female. In Indian context, female teachers are continuously engaged in her daily life by acting different active role and put herself in the family, society and education field for serving her service of teacher as well as related social relationships, and tries to adjust with the different desirable and undesirable situations. Female teachers are always trying to adjust and work in the unique atmosphere of the individual school. In all the process of education, teacher is the key-person in the center of the education system (Chandana, 2014). The success or failure of education system depends mainly on satisfied teachers but also on satisfied school managers and administrators.

    Primary education is the fundamental part of higher education and job satisfaction of primary teachers are extremely important than other categories of teachers because importance of primary education which is a base of the pyramid of the education system in the world. Teachers are considered as builders of a nation since they are the cornerstones of any education system to raise and educate new generations. In fact, teachers are recognized as backbone of a healthy and happy nation since they are only teachers who are able to devotedly shoulder the onerous task of nation building (Spector, 2008). Job satisfaction is one factor that will ensure class performance and productivity of schools. The teachers would get interested to teach their students effectively when they are satisfied with their jobs (Nigama et al., 2018). Job satisfaction of teachers in the schools is the good number significant factors for achievement rate of educational organizations. So, it is indispensable for each administration to efficiently make use of their teachers (Kumar and Balasubramani, 2019).

    Many factors influence job satisfaction of the teachers like age, gender, education level and work experience etc. In Iran and India, more than 50% of teachers had medium level of job satisfaction, which shows that both countries have serious problems about situation of teachers in their societies and educational system. They had high satisfaction about social status of their job while they had less satisfaction about economic sufficiency of job. More specifically, female teachers in both countries had more economic sufficiency and interpersonal cooperation than male teachers. However, male and female teachers differed significantly on job satisfaction (Abbasi, 2003). Likewise Marital satisfaction is an important factor seriously affecting the individual`s quality of working, increasing or decreasing working efficiency, and quality of life (Dehghanmehr et al., 2016). Demographic factors and personal characteristics also associated with the job satisfaction. gender, age, qualification, years of teaching experience, subject, location, , responsibility, and activity are the such factors that influence on the teachers job satisfaction (Aliakbari, 2013). Thus, considering all these present study has been carried out to assess the job satisfaction level of primary school teachers rural and urban areas of Roorkee taluk, Uttarakhand.


  • Materials and Methods

    The differential research design with random sampling technique was used for the study conducted during 2016-2018, on marital satisfaction of 120 primary school teachers in rural and urban areas of Roorkee taluk in Uttarakhand state. Sixty teachers from rural and 60 teachers from urban area were randomly selected for the study.

    General information schedule was used to obtain background information of the teachers. Job satisfaction levels of the teachers were assessed by job satisfaction scale developed by kanungo (1982). It is a 6 point scale consisting of 16 statements. The 6 answer categories are ‘extremely satisfied’, ‘moderately satisfied’, ‘mildly satisfied’, ‘mildly dissatisfied’, ‘moderately dissatisfied’ and ‘extremely dissatisfied’ with a scoring of 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 respectively with a minimum score of 16 and maximum of 96. The total job satisfaction scores were calculated and categorization was made as low (16-42), average (43-69) and high (70-96) levels of job satisfaction.Reliability of the job satisfaction scale was calculated by Guttman Split-Half Coefficient and Spearman-Brown Coefficient method. The reliability coefficients were .933 and .941 which were significant at 0.01 level of confidence.


  • Results and Discussion

    The socio-demographic and occupational factors of rural and urban primary school teachers are presented in Table 1.


    3.1.  Socio-demographic factors

    The age of the respondents ranged between 25-58 years. Two categories of respondents as young and middle adults have been considered. It is observed from Table 1 that , 38.3% in rural and 48.3 per cent in urban area belonged to young adult group and 61.7% in rural and 51.7% in urban area belonged to middle adult age group. With respect to gender, equal per cent of the male and female teachers were in rural area (50% each) and in urban area, 80% of the respondents were female teachers and 20% were male teachers respectively. In case of teachers’ educational qualification, 73.3 percent of the rural primary teachers were graduates and 26.7% were post graduates, while in urban area 68.3% of teachers were post-graduates and 31.7% were graduate teachers.

    3.2.  Occupational factors

     Regarding type of school, 50% of government school teachers and 50% of private school teachers were taken from rural and urban area of Roorkee taluk With respect to work experience, 36.7% of Roorkee rural teachers had 16-21 years of experience, followed by 26.7%, 25% and 11.7% of them were had 2-8 years, 22-28 years and 9-15 year of work experience. While in urban area, about 42 per cent of the teachers had 2-8 years of experience, 26.7% with 22-28 years of experience, 20% and 11.7% of the teachers had 16-21 and 9-15 years of work experience. In case of monthly salary, 50% of Roorkee rural teachers had salary ranging between Rs.7000-14000 and 50% of the teachers had >Rs.38000 while in urban area, 35% of the teachers had >Rs.38000 followed by 16.7%, 15% and 11.7% of the teachers had salary ranging between Rs.15000-22000, Rs.31000-38000 and Rs.7000-14000.

    The Table 2, indicated that majority of the teachers in rural (76.6%) and urban (85%) locality exhibited higher job satisfaction followed by 23.3% of rural and 15% of urban teachers were in average level of job satisfaction. None of the teachers’ from both areas exhibited low level of job satisfaction.


    Table 3  indicates the relationship of demographic and occupational factors with job satisfaction of teachers. It shows that work experience had positive and significant relationship with job satisfaction in rural teachers. It indicates that higher the experience higher the job satisfaction of teachers. These results are supported by Gesinde and Adejumo (2012) who reported significant positive relationship between work experience and job satisfactionof teachers. In case of monthly salary, there was positive and significant relationship with job satisfaction in urban area. It indicates that higher the monthly income higher the level of job satisfaction. The findings are in congruence with Neeraja and Rani (2014) who reported that income level significantly influences job satisfaction of teachers. Similarly, Amarasena et al. (2015) reported that the degree of job satisfaction of faculty members was positively and significantly affected by monthly salary. 


    In Table 4, It is observed that, there was non-significant difference between young and middle aged teachers in their job satisfaction. However mean scores indicated that teachers from both groups have more or less same level of job satisfaction. The result is in congruence with the study of Rama and Renuka (2016) who reported that age had no significant influence on job satisfaction of post graduate teachers working in A.P. Model Schools. With respect to gender, mean scores indicated that job satisfaction of male teachers was slightly higher than female teachers but significant difference was not observed. The result is in line with Amarasena et al. (2015) reported non-significant difference between gender and job satisfaction of academic staff members. It indicated that both male and female exhibited almost same level of job satisfaction. In case of educational qualification, there was non-significant difference between teachers belonged to both categories of educational qualification. The finding is supported by Kardam and Rangnekar (2012) who reported non-significant difference between education qualification and job satisfaction of employees.


    Table 5, represents the comparison of teachers’ job satisfaction by their occupational factors. It indicated that teachers from government school had significantly higher level of job satisfaction as compared to teachers from private schools. The reason might be that government teachers have better privilege in terms of salary, leave facilities, chances of regular promotion and increment in salary as compared to private school teachers. The findings were supported by the results of Tarun and Pooja (2014) who revealed that there was a significant difference in job satisfaction level between government and private school teachers as indicated that government teachers had high job satisfaction than that of private teachers. With respect to work experience, there was no significant difference among teachers’ job satisfaction by their work experience. The result is supported by the results of Sylvester (2010) who reported that teaching experience of teacher educators had no significant impact on level of job satisfaction. In case of monthly salary, there was significant difference was found between teachers’ job satisfaction and monthly salary. Teachers who were earning higher monthly salary exhibited higher job satisfaction as compared to their counterpart. The result is in congruence with Pan et al. (2015) reported that monthly income is positively associated with job satisfaction of the teachers. He revealed that teacher with high monthly income exhibited high job satisfaction.


  • Conclusion

    Majority of rural and urban teachers had high job satisfaction. Results suggested that factors like work experience and monthly salary had positive and significant relationship with job satisfaction of teachers while age and educational qualification of teachers had non-significant relationship with job satisfaction. It is also revealed that teachers from government school had higher level of job satisfaction as compared to private teachers and the teachers with higher monthly salary had higher level of job satisfaction than who were earning low monthly salary.


  • Reference
  • Abbasi, P., 2003, A comparative study of job satisfaction among primary school teachers in India. New Frontiers in Education 33(02), 2.

    Amarasena, T.S., Ajward, A.R., Ahasanul Haque, A.K., 2015. The effect of demographic factors on job satisfaction of university faculty members in Sri lanka. International Journal of Academic Research and Reflection 3(4), 89−102.

    Aliakbari, M., 2013. On the Relationship between Teachers’ Sense of Responsibility and their Job Satisfaction : The Case of Iranian High School Teachers. European Online Journal  of Natural and Social Sciences 2(2), 487–501.

    Armstrong, M., 2006. A handbook of human resource management practice. 10 Edition, London.  Kogan Page Publishing, 264.

    Chandana, C.K., 2014. A study of job satisfaction of the primary school teachers. International Journal of Research in Education 3(3), 18−20.

    Dehghanmehr, S., Balouchi, A., Shahdadi, H., Bandadni, E., 2016. The relationship between job satisfaction and marital satisfaction in nurses working in Amir Al-Momenin Hospital, Zabol, Iran. Der Pharmacia Lettre, 8 (13), 251−255.

    Fives, H., Gill, M.G., 2015. International handbook of research on teachers’ beliefs. New York, U.S.A.,  Routledge.

    Gesinde, A.M., Adejumo, G.O., 2012. Effect of Age and work experience on job satisfaction of Primary school teachers: Implications for career counseling. International. Journal of Asian Social Science, Asian Economic and Social Society 2(3), 302−309.

    Kanungo, R., 1982. Job Satisfaction Scale. International Journal of Psychology, 23(3), 165.

    Kardam, L.B., Rangnekar, S., 2012. Job satisfaction: Investigating the role of experience and Education. Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce 4(1), 16-22.

    Kumar, M.S., Balasubramani, P., 2019. A study on job satisfaction of primary school teachers in Purasaiwakkam Area, Chennai. International Journal of Engineering and Management Research 9(4), 161-165.

    Neeraja, P., Rani, B.S., 2014. Job satisfaction of primary school teachers. International Journal in Management and Social Science 2(1), 76-84.

    Nigama, K., Selvabaskar, S., Surulivel, S.T., Alamelu, R., Joice, D.U., 2018. Job satisfaction among school teachers. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 119(7), 2645−2654.

    Pan, B., Shen, Xue., Liu, L., Yang, Y.,  Wang, L., 2015. Factors associated with job satisfaction among university teachers in Northeastern region of china: A cross-Sectional Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12, 12761−12775

    Rama, T.N., Renuka, P., 2016. A study on job satisfaction of post graduate teachers working in A.P. Model Schools. Journal of Research and Method in Education 6(3), 43−48.

    Spector, P.E., 1985. Measurement of human service staff satisfaction: Development  of the job satisfaction survey. American Journal of Community Psychology, 13(6), 693−713.

    Sylvester, J.M., 2010. Attitude towards teaching profession and job satisfaction of teachers educators. Edutracks 9(8), 36−38.

    Tarun and Pooja, 2014. Analytic Examination of Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in Senior Secondary Schools. International Journal of Education and Psychological Research 3(3), 74−78.

    Velmurugan, R., 2016. Job satisfaction of teachers. Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences 1(1), 20−23.


Cite

1.
Pooja , Yenagi GV. Factors Influencing the Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers in Rural and Urban Areas in Roorkee Taluk, Uttarakhand State IJBSM [Internet]. 30Apr.2020[cited 8Feb.2022];11(1):183-187. Available from: http://www.pphouse.org/ijbsm-article-details.php?article=1367

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