Research Article

Reproductive and Production Performance of Andaman Local Pig of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India under Intensive System of Rearing

M. S. Kundu, P. Perumal, S. K. Ravi, D. Bhattacharya, A. Kundu, Jai Sunder, K. Muniswamy, Sneha Sawhney and A. K. De*

  • Page No:  020 - 026
  • Published online: 27 Feb 2020
  • DOI : HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/IJBSM/2020.11.1.2055a

  • Abstract
  •  biotech.cari@gmail.com

Andaman local pig (ALP) is available in Andaman and Nicobar Islands (ANI), associated with socio-economic of tribal population. ALP is semi-feral, reared in free-range system with low management. However, population of ALP has reduced significantly due to Tsunami in 2004. No systematic study was conducted to explore the potential of ALP. Therefore, a systematic study was conducted on growth and reproductive parameters. Reproductive parameters like litter size, total and individual litter weight at birth, litter size, total and individual litter weight at weaning and pre and post-weaning mortality were recorded. Growth parameters like body weights from month 1 to 9 were recorded. Besides these, dressing percentage, meat: bone ratio, fat thickness and percentage of lean, fat and bone were recorded. Results revealed that significantly (p≤0.05) higher body weights were observed from month 1 to 9 in male than female. Similarly, significantly higher values in reproductive parameters were observed in male than female. Carcass characters like dressing percentage, meat: bone ratio and fat thickness did not differ significantly between genders whereas percentage of lean, fat and bone differed significantly between them. Fat percentage in female and percentage of lean and bone in male were higher significantly than in other sex. It is concluded that growth, reproductive performances and carcass characteristics of ALP reared under intensive system has significantly higher in male than in female and it is baseline information for conservation and propagation of ALP in ANI. ALP breed is well adapted to the intensive system of rearing.

Keywords :   Andaman local pig, reproductive, growth performances, carcass characteristics

  • Introduction

    The domestic animal biodiversity acts as genetic manoeuvring room for future generation. But, the livestock diversity is at risk due to intensive or even industrialized production systems that make for impressive outputs of meat, milk and eggs (Pan et al., 2005). Since most of the wild relatives of today’s domesticated animals are extinct, the main source of such material now lies with the livestock raised by herders and farmers under extensive, subsistence-oriented production systems in the developing or under developed countries. Andaman and Nicobar group of Islands is one of such underdeveloped area in respect of livestock rearing. These islands are endowed with immaculate flora and fauna biodiversity (Kundu et al., 2010). The indigenous livestock germplasm namely pig, goat and fowl are predominant in Andaman and Nicobar group of islands. Among the indigenous livestock, pig occupies 27.26% of the total livestock (Kundu et al., 2017). The ALP (Figure 1)


    is associated with the socio-culture-economic-tradition of tribals. ALP is semi-feral in nature and is reared in free-range system with very low level of management. Mitogenome based genetic characterization of the pig breed indicated that this is an independent breed evolved in Andaman and merit registration as a pig breed (De et al., 2019). This indigenous pig breed is under the threat of extinction and immediate conservation effort is necessary to save the indigenous breed from extinction (De et al., 2014; Hmingthanzuala et al., 2016). Pig production is relatively remunerative due to fast growth rate, high production potential and short generation interval, highly efficient carcass yield, prolific fecundity and high adaptability to different environmental and climatological conditions (Holness, 1991). The ALP is adapted well and highly tolerable to different tropical environments with relatively high humidity and high temperature. Further, these indigenous ALP pigs are natural scavengers and also somewhat semi-wild in behaviour. The indigenous ALP pigs have good mothering ability and become usually aggressive at the time of farrowing. Even though it has low in growth rate and performance, ALP is highly preferred by rural communities to supplement sufficient protein intake and family income. Swine production is important particularly in the Nicobar group of Islands as compared to the rest part of the ANI. Nearly 70 per cent of the pork produced in ANI is consumed in Nicobar group of Islands while the rest of the Islands consume about 30 percent (Livestock Census, 2012). In spite of and ample and high scope for the piggery development in the islands, no proper and systematic study has been investigated on the productive as well as the reproductive performances of these animals, although the native species still represent a highly valuable local animal genetic component in the Islands. The reorganisation of this breed is significant as measures for its conservation, preservation and propagation. Rearing the livestock outside their breeding tract is one way to conserve the genetic material. In this present study, efforts have been made to conserve this precious breed outside its breeding tract and the objective of the present study was to evaluate the different productive and reproductive parameters and carcass characteristics under intensive system of rearing and compared between male and female pigs.


  • Materials and Methods

    The present experiments comply with all relevant institutional and national animal welfare guidelines. Andaman local pigs were derived from North and Middle Andaman and reared under intensive condition in the Institute farm of ICAR-CIARI, Port Blair, South Andaman. A total of 20 animals (10 animals each for male and female) were included in the presents study. These animals were selected from the same pig owner and derived from same sow. Standard management practices were followed for these pigs. The experiment was continued till all the gilts farrowed and subsequent weaning of the new born piglets. Reproductive parameters such as litter size at birth (number), total and individual litter weight at birth (kg), litter size at weaning (number), total and individual litter weight at weaning (kg) and pre and post-weaning mortality (%) were recorded. Growth parameters such as body weights (kg) from month 1 to 9 were recorded. Besides, the dressing percentage, meat: bone ratio, fat thickness and percentage of lean, fat and bone were also recorded for ALP. These parameters were recorded separately for male and female pigs. Weight of individual animal was measured with an electronic balance. The information on reproductive parameters was also recorded.

    The statistical analysis of the data was done as per standard procedures (Snedecor and Cochran, 1994). Student’s t-test was conducted to assess the significant difference between the male and female for mean values of the different parameters (Statistical Analysis System for Windows, SPSS (Version 10) Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA). Tables present the non-transformed data. Differences with values of p≤0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.


  • Results and Discussion

    Reproductive parameters (Table 1) and carcass characteristics (Table 2) of ALP under intensive system of rearing were depicted in tables. The results revealed that significantly (p≤0.05) higher body weights were observed from month 1 to 9 under intensive system in male than in female pigs. The rate of body weight growth in different months revealed that the rate between first and second months was 37.10% and this rate has been increased from second to fifth months (15.39, 17.79 and 22.81%, respectively) and then decreased from fifth to ninth months (13.42, 12.45, 2.87 and 3.14%, respectively) in male pigs. Similar trend was also observed in female pigs as 37.39, 15.96, 18.28, 21.18, 16.56, 9.93, 4.09 and 1.64%, respectively from month 1 to 9. In overall, the male was carrying significantly higher body weight than the female pig (52.12 vs 47.87%) with average body weight of 46.18 and 42.66 kg, respectively for male and female pigs.


    Reproductive parameters revealed that significant differences were observed between pigs of male and female and significantly higher values were observed in male than in female pigs. Litter size at birth, weight of total litter size and individual at birth, litter size at weaning, weight of total litter size and individual at weaning and pre and post weaning mortality differed significantly between male and female pigs at the rate of 9.94, 17.72, 7.79, 3.41, 5.18, 34.19 and 23.46%, respectively. The male has significantly higher value than in female with respect to all the reproductive parameters except the pre and post weaning mortality which were significantly higher in female than in male. However, these values were within the normal range of pigs of indigenous population.

    Carcass characters such as dressing percentage, meat: bone ratio and fat thickness were not significantly different between male and female pigs whereas other parameters such as percentage of lean, fat and bone differed significantly between them. Fat percentage (10.10%) in female and percentage of lean (4.80%) and bone (7.20%) in male were higher significantly than the other sex (Table 3).


    Understanding the factors that drive breed richness and turnover across ecological gradients is important for breed conservation planning. Productive and reproductive data are important to explore the potentiality of any breed. Hence, this study was designed to record the productive and productive data in a scientific way. Livestock productivity in tropics is mediocre. Smallholder traditional feeding and management practices are being followed to support subsistence type of livelihood. Livestock farming specially pig farming plays a vital role for improving livelihood and ensuring nutritional security of tribal farmers of Andaman and Nicobar islands. As the tribal people are mostly non-vegetarian and prefer animal based protein sources, pork is very important for meeting their protein requirement. ALP are generally maintained under free range condition and fed with locally available resources like root crops and coconut. As pigs are not fed with energy rich grains and concentrate feeds, the growth rate was found poor. In the present study, productive and reproductive performance of ALP pig was evaluated under intensive system of management for the first time. Growth performances recorded in this experiment were comparable to the performances with exotic breed, when maintained. Several authors have reported the reproductive performances of pigs in local (Shostak et al., 1990; Raju, 1998; Kundu et al., 2011; Nath et al., 2013) as well as exotic breeds of pigs (Phengsavanh et al., 2010). In the present work, the observations were comparable with the earlier report of De et al. (2014). Kadirvel et al. (2013) also reported similar weaning litter size in the non-descript pigs reared under smallholder production system in North-Eastern India. Litter size at birth and weaning varied widely (Prakash et al., 2008; Kumaresan et al., 2009) under small holder production system. In the present experiment, reproductive and productive parameters were found to be lower than the data available with the exotic breed of pigs.

    3.1.  Litter size at birth

    The variation in litter size at birth of the Indigenous pigs of Andaman Nicobar islands between the male and female indicated significant sex effect. The average litter at birth was in good range with Singh et al. (1990), Mukhopadhayay et al. (1992), Bhowal (1992) and Singh and Devi (1997). However, the result obtained in the present study was higher than the reports of Deka (1988), Shylla (1988), Kumar et al. (1990), Miachie-o (1991), Kalita (1995), Chusi et al. (2015a), Chusi et al. (2015b), Savino et al. (2015) and Savino et al. (2016). On the other hand, contrarily, the result was lower than the reports of Dhingra (1987), Jogi (1989), Lakhani and Bhadouria (1991) and Chauhan et al. (1994). However, the present result was in agreement with result reported in Indian indigenous pigs under different unorganized pig farms (Bendanganger et al., 2008). It was also reported that higher average litter size at birth in pigs than in the present study (Babu et al., 2004). Factors like management practices, type of pigs, mortality & morbidity rate and prevalent of climatic and weather condition might be the reasons for this variation in piggery sectors.

    3.2.  Litter size at weaning

    Sex of piglets did not exert significant effect on litter size at weaning in ALP of ANI. Litter size at weaning stage in present study was within the reported range of Mishra et al. (1985), Miachie-o (1991), Bhowal (1992), Chusi et al. (2015a), Chusi et al. (2015b), Savino et al. (2015) and Savino et al. (2016). However, significantly higher average litter size at weaning stage was observed by Sharda and Singh (1982), Dhingra (1987), Jogi (1995) and Chauhan et al. (1994); lower values were reported by Raina (1982-83), Deka (1988), Lakhani and Bhadouria (1991), Shylla (1988), Kumar et al. (1990), Singh et al. (1990), Das and Mishra (1992), Mukhopadhayay et al. (1992), Kalita (1995) and Singh and Devi (1997). Litter size at weaning stage is determined by various factors such as category of pigs, management practices, morbidity and mortality rate, prevalence of different diseases, sufficient availability of nutrition and prevalent of climatic or weather condition might be the reasons for this variation.

    3.3.  Litter weight at birth

    Statistical analysis revealed that the gender of pig revealed a significant effect on litter weight at birth and individual birth weight as male has higher birth weight than its counterpart. Das and Karunakaran (2000−03) and Singh et al. (1990) reported significantly higher litter weight at birth. Similarly, Dhingra (1987), Shylla (1988), Das and Mishra (1992), Mukhopadhayay et al. (1992), Chhabra et al. (1996), Singh and Devi (1997), Chusi et al. (2015a), Chusi et al. (2015b), Savino et al. (2015) and Savino et al. (2016) also reported relatively higher values of litter weight at birth. The variation in the total litter weight at birth and individual birth weight may be due to the genetic variation in indigenous pig of different region and also the different management system.

    3.4.  Litter weight at weaning

    The sex of the piglets has shown a significant effect on litter weight at weaning in indigenous pigs of Andaman and Nicobar islands as total litter and individual piglets. Litter weight at weaning of ALP was in good agreement with the values reported by Singh and Devi (1997), Chusi et al. (2015a), Chusi et al. (2015b), Savino et al. (2015) and Savino et al. (2016). The average litter weight at weaning however, was found comparatively lower than the reports  made by Dhingra (1987), Jogi (1989), Mishra et al. (1990), Bhowal (1992), Das and Mishra (1992), Chauhan et al. (1994), Kalita (1995) and Chhabra et al. (1996), whereas higher than the reports by Singh et al. (1990) and Mukhopadhayay et al. (1992).

    3.5.  Mortality rate

    Sex has significant effect on mortality rate in indigenous pigs of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Pre-weaning mortality was much higher (50% more) than the post weaning mortality in the intensively rearing ALP. Out of which, male has significantly higher mortality then the female side. Mishra et al. (1985) and Deka (1988) observed higher mortality percentage than the present study whereas comparable result was obtained in indigenous local pigs of Nagaland (Chusi et al., 2015a; Chusi et al., 2015b; Savino et al., 2015; Savino et al., 2016). The disparity in the mortality rate might be attributed to the differences in system of management and prevailing diseases.

    3.6.  Growth parameters

    Body weight at birth differed significantly, followed by it was differed significantly (p≤0.05) at month 1 to 9 between the male and female in intensive system for the ALP. Comparatively lower (Deo et al., 1992; Phookan, 2002) and higher (Pandey et al., 1997; Kalita et al., 2001) birth weight than the present findings were reported. Comparatively higher body weight at weaning was reported by Singh et al. (1990). However, same values were observed by Mukhopadhayay et al. (1991) and Phookan (2002). Nevertheless, higher weaning weight was observed by Deo et al. (1992) and Pandey et al. (1997) and was lower slightly than the observed reports of Phookan (2002). Moreover, Deo et al. (1992) observed higher average body weight of adult than in the present findings. The average lower body weight which might be due to the differences of genetic makeup and genetic variation and also due to management system. Animals belonging to male gender had significantly higher adult body weight than in gender of female. The body weight differences in indigenous ALP pigs belonging to different gender indicated that there are possibilities of existence of disparity in genetic combination between two genders of pigs. It has been reported that the dressing percentage, meat: bone ratio, fat thickness, lean meat percentage, percentage of fat and bone were within the range of standard values for indigenous local pigs (Dube et al., 2013; Muth et al., 2017; Chinnamani et al., 2008; Borah et al., 2016; Abdul-Rahman et al., 2016).

    The mean low live weight with growth parameters reported in the present samples revealed that the indigenous Andaman local pigs are generally smaller than imported exotic pigs and their crossbreds. Similar kind of observation was observed in Indian indigenous such as Ghoongroo pigs (Pan et al., 2005) and in Tanzania indigenous pigs (Mbaga et al., 2005). The variations may be due to the different environmental factors like climate, feed and nutrition and other managemental practices. However, the results of the present study were in agreement with the observations of Holness (1991). In general, indigenous pig breeds are smaller with shorter legs than the imported exotic pig types and its crossbreds. Smaller size of these pigs may have a greater ability to survive under the harsh environmental conditions and have greater disease resistance than the larger size as an evolutionary adaptation to the situation of low-input production system in the village areas (Lekule and Kyvsgaard, 2003). Moreover, Andaman local pig is similar to other indigenous pigs like Mexican hairless pigs (Lemus et al., 2003), Tanzania indigenous pigs (Mbaga et al., 2005) and India’s Ghoongroo pigs (Pan et al., 2005). Indigenous pig of Andaman and Nicobar has the great potential to contribute significantly to the indigenous pork industry based on their valuable source of meat and secondary income to the rural household economy due to their hardiness and ability to adapt to harsh climatic conditions and disease conditions. These growth performances may be useful in selection of breeding stock for improvement of pork production in its home tract of Andaman and Nicobar group of islands. Moreover, the detailed characterization of productive and reproductive performance of Andaman Local pig will be helpful for formulation of breeding strategy for conservation of this native pig breed, which is need of the hour.


  • Conclusion

    ALP has great potential to contribute significantly to indigenous pork industry of ANI based on their positive qualities like valuable pork source, disease resistance and ability to withstand to harsh environment. Reproductive attributes analyses are very useful in selection of breeding stock for higher pork production and selection of suitable rearing methods will potentiate the conservation and propagation. It is concluded that ALP is well adapted to intensive system and has potential to contribute significantly to livelihood security of tribal farmers of ANI.


  • Acknowledgement

    The authors are thankful to the Director, ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute, Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands. All authors recognize and acknowledge the Head and Staff of Animal Science Division for their efforts.


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Cite

1.
Kundu MS, Perumal P, Ravi SK, Bhattacharya D, Kundu A, Sunder J, Muniswamy K, Sawhney S, De* AK. Reproductive and Production Performance of Andaman Local Pig of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India under Intensive System of Rearing IJBSM [Internet]. 27Feb.2020[cited 8Feb.2022];11(1):020-026. Available from: http://www.pphouse.org/ijbsm-article-details.php?article=1337

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