Research Article

Studies on Line×Tester Analysis in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

T. Amarnath, S. Ranjith Raja Ram, J. Gogulakrishnan and R. Narayanan

  • Page No:  456 - 460
  • Published online: 01 Oct 2019
  • DOI : HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/IJBSM/2019.10.5.2027

  • Abstract
  •  ranjithplantbreeder@gmail.com

The present investigation was carried out in sesame involving 7 lines and 3 testers to identify the nature of gene action, combining ability and heterosis in association with yield and its component traits in sesame during December 2017 –March 2019. The parents were mated in the Line×Tester method. The variance due to SCA was higher than the corresponding variance due to GCA for all the characters indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene action. Among the lines ACM 14- 007 SI-2 and GT 10 and among the tester TMV 7 and TMV 5 exhibited high and significant per se performance for seed yield and its component traits. The gca effects of the lines indicated that the line GT 10 was positive and maximum significant for the yield attributing characters. The hybrids ACM 14-007 SI-2×TMV 5 and GT 10×TMV 7 recorded high per se performance with significant sca effects for seed yield per plant its component traits. Based on standard heterosis, the cross combinations GT 10×TMV 7, ACM 14-007 SI-2×TMV 5 and GT 10×TMV 5 possessed significant high standard heterosis for seed yield per plant and its associated traits. The hybrids GT 10× TMV 7,  ACM 14-007 SI-2×TMV 5 and GT 10×TMV 5 were rated as the best since it possessed desirable performance based on per se, sca effects and standard heterosis for most of the yield attributing characters and so these hybrids could be exploited for further crop improvement.

Keywords :   Sesame, line×tester, SCA, GCA, hybrids, yield

  • Introduction

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is normally called sim sim, til and benniseed belongs to the family pedaliaceae one of the most important oil seed crop in India. In India, it is grown in an area of 1.8mha with production of 0.75 mt. It is cultivated in Asia from a period of over 5000 years (Troncoso et al., 2011). This is evidenced by the presence of archaeological remnants of the crop dating back to 5500BC in the Harappa valley in the Indian subcontinent (Ashri and Singh, 2007). Sesame seeds are rich in oil and protein and two unique substances namely sesamin and sesamolin known to have a cholesterol lowering effect in human and to prevent high blood pressure (Anilakumar et al., 2010). Also, it is rich in micronutrients such as minerals, liganans, tocopherol and phytosterol (Hassan et al., 2018).  Sesame is an important source of high quality oil and protein (Elleuch et al., 2007). Brown seeded genotypes records higher polyphenol content (Gadade et al., 2017). Sesame seed cake is a by-product of traditional oil processing (Plaitho et al., 2017). Sesame seed oil was found to be rich in tocopherols (Gharby et al., 2017). The substitution of sesame oil as the sole edible oil has an additive effect in further lowering BP and plasma glucose in hypertensive diabetics (Sankar et al., 2001). The lack of high yielding varieties, poor stand establishment and poor fertilizer response are the major constraints in the cultivation of sesame (Alex et al., 2017). It offers several advantages by virtue of its faster growth, short duration, drought tolerant capacity cultivated throughout the year in sub-tropical and tropical conditions. Sesame had more preference from farmers because of low input required and high price of produce (De et al., 2013). In spite of all these, it has not contributed enormously to the total oil seed production in India, Mainly because of low productivity (417.2 kg ha-1) (FAO, 2017). For breaking the present yield barrier and evolving varieties with high yield potential, it is desirable to combine the genes from genetically diverse parents (Wadikar et al., 2019). The use of the seeds for decoration on the surface of breads and cookies is most familiar to the Americans (Shilpi et al., 2012). The combining ability is an important tool for the selection of desirable parents together with the information regarding nature and magnitude of gene effects controlling quantitative traits (Kumari et al., 2015). The success in identifying such parents mainly depends on the gene action that controls the character under improvement, combining ability and genetic makeup. The knowledge on combining ability and type of gene action helps in selecting the most suitable breeding procedure and in turn for the proper planning of successful breeding programme. During recent years developing hybrid varieties through heterosis breeding are being attempted (Duhoon,2004).In the present investigation an attempt was made to study the nature of gene action, combining ability and magnitude of heterosis for seed yield and its component characters in sesame for 21 crosses.


  • Materials and Methods

    The present investigation on combining ability and heterosis in sesame (sesamum indicum L.) through line×tester analysis was carried out at the Plant Breeding Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India during December 2017–March 2019. In 2017 December, ten genotypes were collected from Viruthachallam and Thindivanam oil seed research stations in Tamil Nadu. Out of ten genotypes, seven genotypes were selected as line and three genotypes were selected as testers. The experimental material consists of seven lines viz, L1-GT 10,   L2- SVPR 1, L3-ACM 14-007 SI-2, L4-ACM 14-010 SI-9, L5-ORM 14, L6-ORM 17 and L7-Paiyur 1 and three testers viz, T1-TMV 5, T2-TMV6 and T3-TMV7 were crossed in Line×Tester mating design and produced 21 hybrids during March 2018 - June 2018.This Twenty one hybrids and ten parents were evaluated during December 2018–March 2019. Hand emasculation was followed in the crossing block. The flower bud which is expected to open in the next day morning is selected in the previous day evening between 3 P.M. to 6 P.M.During the next day morning, between 7 A.M. and 9 .A.M., pollen from the desired male parents were dusted gently on the surface of the stigmas of the emasculated flower buds. The crossed seeds are harvested separately after reaching physiological maturation and shade dried until the capsules shed seeds. The resulted 21 hybrids and 10 parents were sown in randomized block design with three replications during October-December, 2018. The observations were recorded on ten randomly selected plants for both in parents and hybrids in each replication for the following traits namely, days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of capsules plant-1, capsule length, number of seeds capsule-1, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Combining ability and heterosis was evaluated.


  • Results and Discussion

    The analysis of variance for the eight traits were studied and presented in Table 1.


    All the twenty one hybrids and ten parents showed significance for all the characters, the interaction effect (Line×tester) indicating the existence of substantial amount of vigour in hybrids. As a result highly significant at 1% level variation was observed among the hybrids which offering the scope for selection and further improvement by adopting suitable breeding procedure. The combining ability variance was studied for all the eight characters and furnished in Table 2.


    The estimates of GCA and SCA variances revealed that the SCA variances were higher for most of the characters, which indicating the preponderance of non-additive gene action for all the characters. Heterosis was estimated for eight characters in twenty one cross combinations and expressed as percentage over mid parent (di-relative heterosis), better parent (dii-heterobeltiosis) and standard parent (diii-standard heterosis).

    3.1.  per se performance of parents

    Among the lines studied, L3 (ACM 14-007 SI-2) was outstanding with high per se values for yield component traits like plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsule per plant, capsule length, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. The line L1 ( GT 10 ) was also noteworthy with high per se performance for plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, number of seeds per capsule and seed yield per plant. The line L2 (SVPR 1) registered earliness for days to 50% flowering and it also registered maximum number of seeds per capsule, capsule length and 1000 seed weight. Among the testers, T1 (TMV 5) recorded earliness for days to 50%   flowering with high per se performance for the characters like plant height, number of branches per plant and capsule length. The tester T3 (TMV 7) recorded high per se performance for number of capsules per plant, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. The tester T2 (TMV 6) recorded maximum for number of seeds per capsule. This showed that the above mentioned parents might be useful for the incorporation of the respective characters in hybridization programme.

    3.2.  Combining ability analysis

    In the present investigation, the gca effects of the lines indicated that the line L1 (GT 10) was positive and maximum significant for the yield attributing characters viz., number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. L2 (SVPR 1) showed negative significant gca effect for days to 50% flowering and also had significant and positive gca effect for capsule length and number of seeds per capsule. The similar result was reported by Vimala and Parameshwarappa (2017). The line L3 (ACM 14-007 SI-2) also had significant and positive gca effects for the traits viz., plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. The line L5 (ORM 14) recorded positive and significant gca effect for the characters like number of capsules per plant and seed yield per plant. Among the testers, T1 (TMV 5) possessed desirable gca effects for the characters such as plant height, number of branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, capsule length and with negative significant gca effect for days to 50% flowering. The next best tester was T3 (TMV 7) recorded desirable positive significant gca effects for the traits viz., number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant, Table 3.


    Among the hybrids, the hybrid  L3×T1 (ACM 14- 007 SI-2×TMV 5) identified as positive significant sca effects for the characters viz., plant height, number of capsules per plant, capsule length, number of seeds per capsule, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. The hybrid, L1×T3 (GT 10×TMV7) registered positive significant sca effects for the traits viz., plant height, number of branches per plant, number of seeds per capsule, capsule length, seed yield per plant and with negative significant effect for days to 50 per cent flowering. Also the cross, L4×T2 (ACM 14-010 SI-9×TMV 6) registered positive sca significant effects for the characters like number of branches per plant, capsule length, number of seeds capsule-1 and seed yield plant-1. From the above discussion, it was concluded as the top ranked hybrids had either a good general combining line or a good general combining tester as one of the parents.

    3.3.  Heterosis analysis

    Devaraja and Nadarajan (1995) indicated the need for computing standard heterosis for commercial exploitation of hybrid vigour. Hence, for the evaluation of hybrids, standard heterosis is to be given importance rather than the other two types of heterosis. So, the hybrids were evaluated based on standard heterosis. Among the hybrids, L1×T3 (GT 10×TMV 7) was identified as the best performing hybrid since it had possessed significant and positive standard heterosis for all the traits with earliness for day to 50% flowering. The next best hybrid identified was L3×T1 (ACM 14-007 SI-2×TMV 5), since it possessed desirable standard heterosis for almost all the traits except day to 50% flowering. The hybrid L1×T1 (GT 10×TMV 5) recorded desirable standard heterosis for all the characters except plant height and number of seeds per capsule. The hybrid L7×T3 (Paiyur 1×TMV 7) recorded significant standard heterosis for plant height, capsule length and 1000 seed weight. The heterotic effect over the standard check were also reported by Kannan et al. (2001) and Raghunaiah et al. (2008). Hence, from the above discussion, it may be concluded that the crosses L1×T3 and L3×T1 can be rated as best hybrid and the hybrids L1×T1 and L7×T3 can be rated as better hybrids based on the magnitude of heterosis (Table 4).


  • Conclusion

    The hybrids L1×T3 (GT 10×TMV 7), L3×T1 (ACM 14-007 SI-2×TMV 5) and L1×T1 (GT 10×TMV 5) were rated as the best since it possessed desirable performance based on per se, sca effects and standard heterosis for the seed yield plant-1 and its component traits.


  • Reference
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    Anilakumar, K.R., Pal, A., Khanum, F., Bawa, A.S., 2010. Nutritional, medicinal and industrial uses of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seeds-an overview. Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 75(4),159–168.

    Ashri, A., Singh, R.J., 2007. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).       Genetics resources chromosome Engineering and crop improvement, Oilseed crop 4, 231–289.

    Devaraja, M., Nadarajan, N.,  1995. Gene action for seven biometrical traits in rice. Annals of Agricultural Research 16(3), 360–361.

    De, P.S., Bhale, V.M., Khadse, V.A., 2013. Quality and Economics of summer sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) as influenced by irrigation and nutrient levels. International Journal of Bio-resource and stress Management 4(2), 369–371.

    Duhoon, S.S., 2004, September. Exploitation of heterosis for raising productivity in sesame. In New directions for a diverse planet: Proceedings of the 4th international crop science congress, Brisbane, Australia (Vol. 26).

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    Gadade, B.V., Kachare, D.P., Satbhai, R.D., Naik, R.M., 2017. Nutritional Composition and Oil Quality Parameters of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Genotypes.  International Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 3(7).

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Cite

1.
Amarnath T, Ram SRR, Gogulakrishnan J, Narayanan R. Studies on Line×Tester Analysis in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) IJBSM [Internet]. 01Oct.2019[cited 8Feb.2022];10(1):456-460. Available from: http://www.pphouse.org/ijbsm-article-details.php?article=1292

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