Research Article

Response of Nutrient Management to Growth, Yield and Economics of Pigeonpea+Radish Intercropping System in Odisha

A. K. Sethy, A. K. Barik and R. K. Paikaray

  • Page No:  340 - 345
  • Published online: 30 Aug 2019
  • DOI : HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/IJBSM/2019.10.4.2019

  • Abstract

A field experiment was conducted to study the growth and productivity of pigeonpea + radish intercropping system under different nutrient management practices for two consecutive years during kharif seasons of 2013 and 2014 at Instructional Farm, RRTTS, Gumusur Udayagiri, OUAT, Kandhamal, Odisha, India. The treatments were Pigeonpea (100% RDF)+Radish (100% RDF), Pigeonpea (100% RDF)+Radish (75% RDF), Pigeonpea (100% RDF)+Radish (50% RDF), Pigeonpea (100% RDF)+Radish (25% RDF), Pigeonpea (100% RDF)+Radish (0% RDF ), Pigeonpea (75% RDF)+Radish (100% RDF),  Pigeonpea (50% RDF)+Radish (100% RDF ), Pigeonpea (25% RDF)+Radish (100% RDF), Pigeonpea (0% RDF)+Radish (100% RDF), Pigeonpea (0% RDF)+Radish (0% RDF) as control, sole Pigeonpea (100% RDF) and Sole Radish (100% RDF).The twelve treatments were replicated thrice in a randomized block design. Among the intercropping systems, the treatment 100% RDF was applied to the base crop (pigeonpea) and 100% RDF to the intercrop (radish) almost all the growth parameters as well as yield components showed highest values. Sole crop of pigeonpea with 100% RDF produced the highest seed yield (1.20 t ha-1) and stover yield (4.56 t ha-1). Sole radish crop with 100% RDF achieved  the highest root yield (17.70 t ha-1) and leaf yield (4.02 t ha-1) over other treatments followed by pigeonpea + radish with 100% RDF to base crop+100% RDF to intercrop. Sole radish exhibited the highest net return (` 73773 ha-1) and return rupee-1 investment (3.28) with 100% RDF though the highest gross return (` 125890 ha-1) was obtained from pigeonpea +radish intercropping system with 100% RDF to both the crops.

Keywords :   Pigeonpea, radish, intercropping, recommended dose, yield

  • Introduction

    Pigeonpea an important crop amongst pulses is relatively less yielder because of its slow initial growth rate and low harvest index; therefore it is grown as intercrop which helps in efficient utilization of available resources for enhancing the productivity and profitability (Rao and Willey, 1980). In India, it is grown in an area of 5.40 m ha with an annual production of 4.78 mt and productivity of 885 kg ha-1 (Anonymous, 2017). The species of contrasting habit, both morphologically and physiologically would together be able to exploit the total environment more effectively than monoculture (Donald, 1963), though there is a significant amount of intercrop competition (Willey, 1979). Beets (1982) reported  that crop insurance was a major principle of intercropping system. The competitive ability of intercropping was enhanced by the high plant population pressure provided by the component species together (Rao and Shetty, 1976). Intercropping system as a whole intercepts more solar radiation and thus has higher potential for photosynthesis than single crop stands (Reddy and Reddy, 1981). Thakur et al. (1998) reported that the intercrop entails better utilization of soil moisture, nutrients and solar radiation than sole cropping. Further it augments the utilization of available resources, viz., light, nutrients and moisture, with reference to the production per unit of applied inputs (Ahlawat et al., 2005). This significantly not only influence yield of intercrops (Reddy et al., 2007), but it would ensure low yield fluctuations than sole cropping even under unfavourable conditions (Anderson and Williams, 1954; Oguntowara and Norman, 1974). Pigeonpea offers a good scope for intercropping with fast growing early maturing and shallow rooted crops. Intercropping of pigeonpea with suitable intercrops brings stability in the yield and improves the total production. Aiyer (1949) reported that the resources with regard to plant nutrients present in the soil or added to it as manures were utilized to the fuller extent in mixed stand than when component crops were grown separately. Singh and Singh (1992) had reported that the production efficiency of pigeonpea is higher when it is grown as intercrop rather than the sole crop.  Radish is easily grown as a companion crop or intercrop between the rows of tall growing pulses.  Radish is a popular choice for cultivation, as they are fairly easy to grow and is a rapidly maturing crop with many varieties, and reach maturity within 60 days. Radish is useful in the treatment of liver, gall bladder troubles, sleeplessness, chronic diarrhoea, neuralgic headaches, urinary complaints, piles and gastrodynia (Sadhu, 1993). There is no need of irrigation for radish if sown in rainy season. To reduce the drought risks, pigeonpea+radish intercropping system has been recommended for the rainfed areas (Behera et al., 1998). The system maximizes the yield per unit area in good rainfall years and stabilizes the yield by minimizing the drought risks in bad rainfall years.  With this view, the present experiment was carried out to study the nutrient management on growth, yield and economics of pigeonpea+radish intercropping system in Odisha.

  • Materials and Methods

    The field experiment was conducted at Instructional Farm, Regional Research and Technology Transfer Station (RRTTS), Gumusur Udayagiri, Odisha University of Agriculture and Technology, district Kandhamal, Odisha state, India during kharif seasons, 2013 and 2014. The experiment consisted of twelve treatments (ten paired row arrangements 30/90 cm and sole crop of pigeonpea and radish) each with three replications was laid out in randomized block design (RBD).The treatments were T1- Pigeonpea (100% RDF)+Radish (100% RDF), T2- Pigeonpea (100% RDF)+Radish (75% RDF ), T3- Pigeonpea (100% RDF)+Radish (50% RDF), T4- Pigeonpea (100% RDF)+Radish (25% RDF), T5- Pigeonpea (100% RDF)+Radish (0% RDF ), T6- Pigeonpea (75% RDF)+Radish (100% RDF),T7- Pigeonpea (50% RDF)+Radish (100% RDF ), T8- Pigeonpea (25% RDF)+Radish (100% RDF ),T9- Pigeonpea (0% RDF)+Radish (100% RDF), T10- Pigeonpea (0% RDF)+Radish (0% RDF ) Control, T11-Sole Pigeonpea (100% RDF) and T12-Sole Radish (100% RDF).The research location has an average annual rainfall of 128.69 cm. The soil was sandy loam in texture with pH, 5.4, organic carbon-0.39%, available N, 240.80 kg ha-1, available P2O5, 22.0 kg ha-1 and available K2O, 215.34 kg ha-1. Pigeonpea cv. UPAS-120 and radish cv. Pusachetki were sown on 21 June, 2013 and 22 June, 2014, respectively in specified pigeonpea with spacing of 60×30 cm2 in pigeonpea with 20 kg of seed ha-1  and  30×15 cm2 in radish with 15 kg of seed ha1  and all farm operations were conducted as per recommendations of the crops. The required quantities of fertilizers were applied as per the treatments with the area occupied by the component crop. Pigeonpea was harvested on 21 October, 2013 and 22 October, 2014 andradish on 07 August, 2013 and 09 August, 2014. Observations on growth and yield attributes were recorded periodically and yield was recorded at harvest of crops. The data were tabulated and  analyzed as per the standard procedure for “Analysis of Variance” (ANOVA) as described by Gomez and Gomez (1984) and the significance of treatments was tested by ‘F’ test (Variance ratio).

  • Results and Discussion

    3.1. Pigeonpea

    3.1.1. Growth attributes

    Sole pigeonpea (P 100% RDF) produced highest plant height(179 cm), number of primary branches plant-1 (17.3), dry matter accumulation( 96.76 g plant-1),crop grow rate (CGR) during 60–90 DAS (1.60 g plant-1day-1) and LAI at 90 DAS (4.64) on pooled data basis. Among the intercropping systems, the highest plant height (174.9 cm), number of primary branches plant-1 (15.3), LAI at 90 DAS (4.39), dry matter accumulation (95.47 g plant-1 ) and  CGR during 60–90 DAS (1.59 g plant-1day-1) of pigeonpea was recorded with P100% RDF+R 100% RDF   and this was followed by the treatment P 75% RDF+R 100% RDF,P 50% RDF+R 100% RDF and P 100% RDF+R 75% RDF. These results were in conformity with the findings of Parmila Rani and Reddy (2010), Kumawat et al. (2013), Nagar et al. (2015). Pal et al. (2015), Nagar et al. (2016).

    3.1.2.  Yield components and Yield

    Sole pigeonpea receiving 100% RDF showed highest number of filled pods plant-1 (135.3), number of seeds pod-1 (5.0) and 1000-seed weight (82.16 g).This was at par with the intercropping systems with P100% RDF+R100% RDF and P75% RDF+R100% RDF. Similar results were recorded by Malik et al. (2013) and Pandey et al. (2013) (Table 1).

    Sole pigeonpeawith 100% RDF produced highest seed yield of 1.20 t ha-1 and stover yield of 4.56 t ha-1 and was at par with full dose of fertilizers to P100% RDF+R100% RDF withseed yield of 1.16 t ha-1and stover yield of 4.36 t ha-1and superior to other treatments.Similar results have been reported by Vishwanatha et al. (2012).

    3.2.  Radish

    3.2.1 Growth attributes

    Sole radish with application of 100% RDFrecorded highest plant height (43.0 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (15.22),LAI (1.49); dry matter accumulation (56.21 g plant-1) and CGR at 20-30 DAS (1.58 g plant-1 day-1). This was followed by intercropping system with P100% RDF+R 100% RDF with plant height of 37.2 cm, number of leaves plant-1 12.2, LAI of 1.28, dry matter accumulation of 45.1 g plant-1. The treatment with pigeonpea+radish intercropping system having no fertilizers resulted in lowest plant height (21.1 cm),  number of leaves  plant-1 (5.73),  leaf area index (0.53),dry matter accumulation (25.83 g plant-1) and CGR (0.68 g plant-1 day-1) in pooled analysis. These results were in accordance with the findings of Brintha and Seran (2009).

    3.2.2Yield components and yield

    Highest value of root length (29.01 cm) and root girth (13.0cm) was recorded with sole radish (R100% RDF) which was significantly higher than all other treatments. Among the intercropping systems, P100% RDF+R100% RDFresulted higher value of root length (22.8 cm) andgirth of roots (9.82 cm) and it was followed by P75% RDF+R100% RDF  and P50% RDF+R 100% RDF which were found to be at par.These results were in conformity with the findings of Brintha and Seran (2009) and Thavaprakaash et al. (2005).

    The highest root yield (17.70 t ha-1) and leaf yield (4.02 t ha-1) of radish was obtained fromsole crop of radish with 100% RDF and was significantly higher than all other intercropping treatments. Among the intercropping systems, application of 100% RDF to base crop+100% RDF to intercrop resulted in higher root yield of radish (13.22t ha-1)and leaf yield (3.71 t ha-1) followed by P75% RDF+R100% RDF.Similar results were reported by Brintha and Seran (2009) and Islam et al. (2011) (Table 2).

  • Economics

    The highest net returns (Rs. 73773 ha-1), return rupee-1 investment (3.28) was achieved from the treatment where 100% RDF was applied to sole radish.This was followed by intercropping system with 100% RDF to base crop+100% RDF to intercrop (net return of Rs. 71915 ha-1 and return rupee-1 investment of 2.33). The highest gross return was obtained from intercropping system of P100% RDF+R100% RDF (Rs. 1, 25,890) followed by P75% RDF+R100% RDF and P50% RDF+R100% RDF. These findings were in accordance with the results reported by Kasbe and Karanjikar(2009) and Vishwanatha et al. (2012) (Table 3).

  • Conclusion

    Sole crop of radish with 100% RDF produced the highest yield (17.70 t ha-1), net return (Rs. 73773 ha-1) and return rupee-1 investment (3.28) when compared with other intercropping systems. Among different intercropping systems application of 100% recommended fertilizer dose with pigeonpea and radish performed best.

  • Reference
  • Ahlawat, I.P.S., Gangaiah, B., Singh, O., 2005. Production potential of chickpea based intercropping systems under irrigated conditions Indian Journal of Agronomy 50(1), 27–30.

    Aiyer, A.Y.A., 1949. Mixed cropping in India. Indian Journal  Agriculture  Science19, 454.

    Anderson, E, Williams, L.D., 1954.Maize and sorghum as mixed crop in Horidura. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens 41, 213–215.

    Anonymous, 2017. Agricultural Statistics at a Glance- 2017. Directorate of Economics and Statistics. Department of Agriculture, Cooperation and farmers welfare, Ministry of Agriculture and farmers welfare, Government of India, 112–113.

    Beets, W.C., 1982. Multiple Cropping and Tropical Farming System.Grower, London,Britain,and West views press, Colorado, USA 156.

    Behera, B.D., Singh, G.S., Senapati, P.C., 1998. New vistas for Olericulture in rainfed plateaus of Orissa. Indian Farming 47(12), 14–16.

    Brintha, I., Seran, T.H., 2009. Effect of paired row planting of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) intercropped with vegetable amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L.) on yield components of radish in sandy regosol. The Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4(1), 19–28.

    Donald, C.M., 1963. Competition among crop and pasture plants. Advance in Agronomy 10, 435–473.

    Gomez, K., Gomez, A., 1984. Statistical procedures for Agriculture Research. Edition  2, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

    Islam, M.M., Karim, A.J.M.S., Jahiruddin, M., Majid, Nik, M., Miah, M.G., Mustaque Ahmed, M.,  Hakim, M.A., 2011. Effects of organic manure and chemical fertilizers on crops in the radish-stem amaranth-Indian spinach cropping pattern in homestead area.  Australian Journal of  Crop Science 5(11), 1370–1378.

    Kasbe, A.B., Karanjikar, P.N., 2009. Production potential of soybean, pigeonpea intercropping. Asian Journal  Soil Science 4(1), 146–148.

    Kumawat, N., Singh, R.P., Kumar, R., Hari, O., 2013. Effect of integrated nutrient management on the performance of sole and intercropped pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] under rainfed conditions. Indian Journal of Agronomy 58(3), 309–315.

    Malik, J.K., Singh, R., Thenua, O.V.S.,  Kumar, A., 2013. Response of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)+mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus) intercropping system to phosphorus and biofertilizers. Legume Research 36(4), 323.

    Nagar, R.K., Goud, V.V., Kumar, R, Kumar, R., 2015. Effect of incorporation of FYM, pigeonpea stalk, phosphocompost on growth, yield and nutrient uptake in pigeonpea based intercropping system. The Bioscan 10(3), 339–343.

    Nagar, R.K., Goud, V.V., Kumar, R., Kumar, R., 2016. Effect of organic manures and crop residue management on physical, chemical and biological properties of soil under pigeonpea based intercropping system. International Journal of  Farm Science 6(1), 101–113.

    Oguntowara, O., Norman, D.W., 1974. Optimization model of evaluating the stability of sole cropping and mixed cropping systems under changing resources and technology levels. Samaru Res, Bulletin, 217.

    Pal, A.K., Singh, R.S., Shukla, U.N.,  Singh, S., 2016. Growth and production potential of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] as influenced by intercropping and integrated nutrient management. Journal of Applied and Natural Science 8(1), 179–183.

    Pandey, I.B., Singh, S.K., Tiwari, S., 2013. Integrated nutrient management for sustaining the productivity of pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] based intercropping systems under rainfed condition. Journal of Agronomy 58(2), 192–197.

    Parmila Rani, B., Reddy, R.D., 2010. Performance of pigeonpea in sole and inter cropping system in Vertisols of Krishna - Godavari zone in Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research 44(3),225–228.

    Rao, M.R., Shetty, S.V.R., 1976. Some biological aspects of intercropping systems on crop weed balance. Indian Journal of Weed Science 8(1), 32–43.

    Rao, M.R., Willey, R.W., 1980. Preliminary studies of intercropping combinationsbased on pigeonpea or sorghum. Experimental Agriculture 16, 29–39.

    Reddy, G.J., Reddy, M.R., 1981. Studies on intercropping in maize under varied row spacings. Indian Journal of Agronomy 26(3), 360–362.

    Reddy, M.M., Padmaja, B., Malathi, S., Rao, L., Jalapathi, 2007. Productivity of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) – based intercropping systems as influenced by fertility and pest management practices under rainfed conditions. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences77(4), 205–207.

    Sadhu, M.K., 1993. Root crops. In: Boss (Ed), Vegetable crops, Naya Prakash, India, 470–488.

    Singh, D., Singh, R.K., 1992. Effect of level and depth of placement of phosphorous on pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) based intercropping systems under dryland conditions. Indian Journal of Agronomy 37, 130–134.

    Thakur, R.C., Thakur, D.R., Sharma, V., 1998. Maize based intercropping. In: Yadav, R.L., Prasad, K., Singh, A.K. (Eds.), Predominant cropping systems of India: Technologies and Strategies. , PDCSR Publication, 169–183.

    Thavaprakaash, N., Velayudham, K., Muthukumar, V.B., 2005. Effect of crop geometry, intercropping systems and integrated nutrient management practices on productivity of baby corn (Zea mays L.) based intercropping systems. Research Journal of Agricultural and Biological Sciences 1(4), 295–302.

    Vishwanatha, S., Anilkumar, S.N., Koppalkar, B.G., Pujari, B.T. Desai, B.K., 2012. Effect of fertilizer management on economics and yield advantages of pigeonpea and sunflower intercropping system.International Journal of Forestry and Crop Improvement 3(2), 76–79.

    Willey, R.W., 1979. Intercropping- its importance and research needs, competition and yield advantages. Field Crop Abstracts 32(1), 1–10.


Sethy AK, Barik AK, Paikaray RK. Response of Nutrient Management to Growth, Yield and Economics of Pigeonpea+Radish Intercropping System in Odisha IJBSM [Internet]. 30Aug.2019[cited 8Feb.2022];10(1):340-345. Available from:

People also read

Research Article

Morpho-physiological Responses of Chilli (Capsicum annuum L.) to Foliar Application of Micronutrients and Growth Regulators

Arindam Ghosh, Sananda Mondal and Debasish Panda

Chilli, growth regulator, micronutrient, growth, physiological parameters

Published Online : 02 Apr 2020



Published Online : 07 Jun 2010

Indigenous Bio-resource

Genetic Variability in Indigenous Brinjal Land Races of Dimapur District of Nagaland and their Traditional Cultivation Practices

Raktim Ranjan Bhagowati and Sapu Changkija

Brinjal, land races, Nagaland, variability, morphology, fruit types

Published Online : 07 Jun 2010