Short Research

Studies on Phytotoxicity of Herbicides and Herbicide Mixtures and its effect on Yield of Direct-Sown Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Ashirbachan Mahapatra, Sanjoy Saha, Sushmita Munda, R. K. Shukla

  • Page No:  853 - 856
  • Published online: 07 Dec 2017
  • DOI : HTTPS://DOI.ORG/10.23910/IJBSM/2017.8.6.3C0557

  • Abstract
  •  ashirbachan@gmail.com

The present investigation was carried out at Institute ResearchFarmofICAR-NRRI, Cuttack (Odisha) during wet season of 2016 to study the phytotoxicity of a new herbicide molecule XR-848 Benzyl Ester along with its mixture with Cyhalofop Butyl in different doses and its effect on yield of direct-sown rice. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with three replications and nine treatments viz. four herbicide mixtures(T1-XR-848 Benzyl Ester+Cyhalofop Butyl 12% EC (w/v) @ 120(20+100)g ha-1, T2-XR-848 Benzyl Ester+Cyhalofop Butyl 12% EC (w/v) @ 150(25+125)g ha-1, T3-XR-848 Benzyl Ester+Cyhalofop Butyl 12% EC (w/v) @ 180(30+150)g ha-1 andT4-XR-848 Benzyl Ester+Cyhalofop Butyl 12% EC (w/v) @ 360(60+300)g ha-1), three alone herbicides(T5-XR-848 Benzyl Ester 2.5% EC (w/v) @ 25g ha-1, T6-XR-848 Benzyl Ester 2.5% EC (w/v) @ 30g ha-1 andT7-Bispyribac-Na 10% SC @ 30g ha-1), one weed free (T8)and an untreated weedy check (T9).Under phytotoxicity analysis, visual observations (Phyotoxic score), chlorophyll content and SPAD meter readings at 10, 20 and 30 days after treatment (DAT) of herbicides were taken, in which the T4proved to be the most phytotoxic causing a reduction of 29.41% in grain yield which was at par with the untreated weedy check. Whereas T2 showed a minimal phyotoxicity at initial stage with a quick recovery within 30 DAT of herbicide and was proved to be the best herbicide mixture yielding at par with the weed free (T8).

Keywords :   Herbicide, herbicide mixture, phytotoxicity, yield, direct-sown rice

  • Introduction

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the principal source of food and income for the people of South-East Asia. India is the second largest producer of rice next to China with an annual growing area 45Mha and production 90 Mha which contributs nearly 45 per cent of total food grain production in the country (Singh et al., 2013). Direct-sown rice (DSR) is becoming more popular than the traditional methods of rice cropping (Kumar et al., 2016a,b; Kumar et al., 2015a,b; Singh et al., 2017). But the DSR is very prone to weed infestation as the weeds get ample opportunity to grow simultaneously with rice, right from the germination to maturity (Roy et al., 2011). In DSR, chemical weed control is getting a growing acceptance among the farmers as the traditional methods of weed control are non-economic as well as labour-intensive (Chatterjee et al., 2016). However, negative impacts on environment like weed flora shift and herbicide resistance are the major disadvantages of long term use of herbicides with same mode of action. This situation needs to evaluate different aspects of new molecules of herbicide along with its mixtures with well established herbicides. Post emergence application of different herbicides may lead initial injury up to 30% in rice (Thapa, 2012), such as leaf chlorosis and growth stunting during 7 to 14 days after application which disappears shortly (Rahman, 2016). Hence an attempt was made to evaluate a new molecule of herbicide i.e. XR-848 Benzyle Ester and its mixture with a well-established herbicide from aryloxyphenoxypropionate group i.e. Cyhalofop-butyl for their phytotoxicity and effect on yield in wet DSR.


  • Materials and Methods

    The experiment was conducted at Institute Research Farm of ICAR-National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack (Odisha) (20°272''102.2' N, 85°562''92.2' E; 24 m above mean sea level) during wet season of 2016. The experiment soil was sandy clay loam with pH 7.8 with low available N (215.4 kg ha-1), medium available P (48 kg ha-1), high available P (322.8 kg ha-1) and medium organic carbon (0.52%). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The gross and net plot size were 6.0 m×5.0 m=30 m2 and 5.1 m×4.0 m=20.4 m2,respectively in which sprouted seeds of Rice (var. Naveen, Indica type) were directly sown manually with a seed rate of 80 kg ha-1. There were nine treatments consisting of well established herbicide (T7-Bispyribac-Na 10% SC at 30 g ha-1), new herbicide at two doses (T5-XR-848 Benzyl Ester 2.5% EC (w/v) at 25g ha-1 and T6-XR-848 Benzyl Ester 2.5% EC (w/v) at 30g ha-1) and four herbicide mixtures of different doses (T1-XR-848 Benzyl Ester+Cyhalofop Butyl 12% EC (w/v) at 120(20+100)g ha-1, T2-XR-848 Benzyl Ester+Cyhalofop Butyl 12% EC (w/v) at 150(25+125)g ha-1, T3-XR-848 Benzyl Ester+Cyhalofop Butyl 12% EC (w/v) at 180(30+150)g ha-1, T4-XR-848 Benzyl Ester+CyhalofopButyl 12% EC (w/v) at 360(60+300)g ha-1) along with T8-Weed Free and untreated T9-Weedy check. The new herbicides XR-848 Benzyl Ester 2.5% EC (w/v) and formulated herbicide mixture XR-848 Benzyl Ester+Cyhalofop Butyl 12% EC (w/v) were obtained from Daw AgroSciences India Pvt Ltd. All the chemical treatments were applied at 2–3 leaf stage of appearance of weeds. The untreated weedy check was kept undisturbed during the entire cropping period. Recommended fertilizer application (N:P2O5:K2O::100:60:40 kg ha-1) was followed, with full dose of P and K application as basal during final land preparation and the N fertilizer application in four equal splits at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing.

    2.1.  Phytotoxicity

    In order to measure phytotoxicity, three methods viz. visual observation (phytotoxic score), chlorophyll content analysis and SPAD chlorophyll meter readings were taken at 10, 20 and 30 days after treatment (DAT) of the above mentioned post emergence herbicides.

    2.1.1.  Visual observations(Phytotoxic score)

    Visual observations on phytotoxicity parameters were recorded at 10,20 and 30 DAT of herbicides in the plots treated with T1 to T7 by 5 persons separately watching each plot and then averaged to obtain the mean values. Phytotoxicity symptoms viz., leaf injury on tips/surface, wilting, necrosis and chlorosis were recorded in all treatments. The phytotoxicty score was recorded using 1–10 scale (where 1=1–10 % damage and 10=91–100 % damage).

    2.1.2.  Chlorophyll content

    Fresh leaveswere taken from plants of each plot at 10, 20 and 30 DAT of herbicide. 25 mg of shredded leaf was taken from each sample and kept in 10 ml of 80% acetone solution in 15 ml centrifuge tubes for 48 hours in darkness. Then the tubes were centrifuged in 3000 rpm for 15 minutes at 4oC. After completion of centrifugation the supernatants were separated and analysed for chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b in spectrophotometer in 645 and 663 nm wave lengths (Porra et al., 1989). Determination of chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b were done by using the following formulae 1 and 2. Then total chlorophyll (Chlorophyll-a+Chlorophyll-b) contents were calculated.

    Chlorophyll - a (µg/ml)=[{(12.7 X OD663)–(2.69 X OD645)} / leaf weight (mg)] × 0.4….. (1)

    Chlorophyll - b (µg/ml)=[{(22.9 X OD645)–(4.68 X OD663)} / leaf weight (mg)] × 0.4….. (2)

    Where,

    OD663=Spectrophotometer reading at 663 nm wave length

    OD645=Spectrophotometer reading at 645 nm wave length

    2.1.3.      SPAD chlorophyll-meter readings

    Five randomly selected rice plants were selected from each plot and SPAD chlorophyll-meter observations were taken from five leaves from each selected plantusing SPAD 502 Plus Chlorophyll-meter at 10, 20 and 30 DAT of herbicides.

    2.2.  Yield

    After physiological maturity, the crop from each net plot was harvested separately. The grains were separated from straw by threshing. The weight of grains was recorded and expressed in t ha-1.


  • Results and Discussion

    3.1.  Visual observations (phytotoxic score)    

    Phytotoxic symptoms on rice leaves in terms of injury in leaf tip/surface, wilting, necrosis and chlorosis as observed in the herbicide treated plots at 10, 20 and 30 DAT of herbicides are presented in the Table 1. The highest phytotoxic symptoms were found in the herbicide mixture XR-848 Benzyl Ester+Cyhalofop Butyl 12% EC (w/v) @ 360(60+300)g ha-1 (T4) in which the scores were 1, 2, 3 and 5 followed by herbicide mixture XR-848 Benzyl Ester+Cyhalofop Butyl 12% EC (w/v) @ 180(30+150) g ha-1 (T3) in which the scores were 1, 1, 1 and 2 for injury in leaf tip/surface, wilting, necrosis and chlorosis respectively at 10 DAT of herbicides. In the other herbicide treatments normally 1 to 10% phytotoxicity was seen at 10 DAT of herbicides. At 20 DAT of herbicides, no injury in leaf tip/surface and wilting was observed in the field except the plots treated with T4 in which 1–10% symptoms were observed. 1–10% symptoms as necrosis and chlorosis were observed in all herbicide treated plots except the T4 treated plot where the symptoms were 10-20%. However, at 30 DAT of herbicides the crop was found to recover totally and no phytotoxic symptoms were observed.

    3.2.  Chlorophyllcontent analysis

    The data regarding the chlorophyll content analysis are presented in Table 2. The data revealed that at 10 DAT of herbicides, the total chlorophyll content in rice leaves was found to be highest in the weed free plot (T8) (9.19 µg ml-1) which was at par with the weedy check (T9) (8.50 µg ml-1) and T5 (8.09 µg ml-1) followed by T6 (7.35 µg ml-1), T1 (7.07 µg ml-1), T7 (6.74 µg ml-1) and T2 (5.96 µg ml-1). The lowest chlorophyll content was found under T4 (4.39 µg ml-1) followed by T3 (5.49 µg ml-1). At 20 DAT of herbicides, the treatments i.e. T8 (12.22 µg ml-1), T5 (10.799 µg ml-1) and T6 (9.940 µg ml-1) were found to be at par with T9 (11.67 µg ml-1), T1 (10.38 µg ml-1) and T7 (9.58 µg ml-1) respectively. The lowest chlorophyll content was found under T4 (7.42 µg ml-1) followed by T3 (8.66 µg


    ml-1) and T2 (9.02 µg ml-1). Similarly at 30 DAT of herbicides, the total chlorophyll content was highest under T8 (12.18 µg ml-1) followed by T9 (10.13 µg ml-1) which was at par with T5 (9.84 µg ml-1), T6 (9.52 µg ml-1), T1 (9.45 µg ml-1) and T7 (9.11 µg ml-1). The lowest total chlorophyll content was observed under T4 (7.40 µg ml-1) followed by T3 (8.35 µg ml-1) and T2 (8.85 µg ml-1).Analyzing the results,it is concluded that among the herbicide mixtures, T4 and T3 showed a delayed recovery compared to the other two i.e. T2 and T1. Whereas, among the alone applied herbicides, T7was found to be more phytotoxic than the other two i.e. T5 and T6. This finding was in agreement with XuePing et al. (2000) who had found that 1-3 leaf stage of rice seedlings were highly vulnerable to Bispyribac-Na showing higher phytotoxicity.

    3.3.  SPAD chlorophyll-meter readings

    Data regarding SPAD meter readings are presented in Table 2. The data revealed that at 10 DAT of herbicides, the highest SPAD values were obtained under T8 (33.52) which was found at par with T9 (33.25), T5 (32.94), T6 (32.05) and T1 (31.07) followed by T7 (30.348) which was at par with T2 (29.24) and T3 (28.200). The lowest SPAD value was obtained from T4 treated plot i.e.4.39. At 20 DAT of herbicides, the highest SPAD value was obtained under T8 (35.71) which was at par withT9 (34.240), T5 (34.03) and T6 (32.81) followed by T7 (32.14) which was at par with T1 (32.32), T2 (31.82), T3 (31.22) and the lowest one T4 (30.90). Similarly at 30 DAT of herbicides, the highest SPAD value was observed under T8 (43.03) which was at par with T5 (41.40) and T9 (40.23) followed by T6 (39.50) which was at par with T1 (38.50), T7 (38.00), T2 (37.60) and T3 (36.53). The lowest SPAD value was observed in T4 treated plot i.e. (33.73). In the experiment, minimal phytotoxic effects of T5, T6 and T1 were observed which were found at par with the untreated plots and the T2, T3 and T7 were though at par with each other, found a little more phytotoxic than the former set (T5, T6 and T1) of observations. Whereas, under T4, the highest phytotoxicity was observed.

    3.4.  Grain yield (t ha-1)

    Data with respect to grain yield is presented in Table 2. It is clear from the data that the different weed management treatments significantly influenced the grain yield. Among different treatments, the weed free (T8) (5.27 t ha-1) proved significantly superior producing higher grain yield, but it was found at par with T2 (4.91 t ha-1) which was followed by the yields of plots treated with T6 (4.74 t ha-1), T1 (4.68 t ha-1), T5 (4.46 t ha-1) and T7 (4.36 t ha-1). T3 (4.17 t ha-1) and T4 (3.72 t ha-1) were next in order, which performed significantly better than the untreated weedy check (T9) (3.14 t ha-1) which was the lowest producing treatment. Higher phytotoxicity in T4 and T3may be the reason for lower yield of grain and effective control of weeds during the critical crop-weed competition period, may be the reason for which the T2 yielded at par with the weed free treatment i.e. T8.


  • Conclusion

    The new molecule (XR-848 Benzyl Ester) alone i.e. T5 and T6 shows less phytotoxicity and more grain yield than Bipyribac-Na i.e. T7. Whereas, among the herbicide mixtures, the new molecule in combination with Cyhalofop-butyl (T2), though initially phytotoxic, shows a timely recovery, greater weed control and higher grain yield than the other herbicide combinations i.e. T1, T3 and T4.


  • Reference
  • Chatterjee, D., Kumar, R., Kuotsu, R., Deka, B.C., 2016.Validation of traditional weed control method through common salt application in hill region of Nagaland. Current Science 110(8), 1159–1167.

    Kumar, R., Kumar, M., Kumar, A., Pandey, A., 2015a. Productivity, profitability, nutrient uptake and soil health as influenced by establishment methods and nutrient management practices in transplanted rice (Oryza sativa) under hill ecosystem of North East India. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 85(5), 634–639

    Kumar, R., Kumar, M. and Deka, B.C. 2015b. Production potential, profitability and energetics of transplanted rice as influenced by establishment methods and nutrient management practices in Eastern Himalaya. Research on Crops 16(4), 625–633.

    Kumar, A., Nayak, A.K., Mohanty, S., Das, B.S., 2016a. Greenhouse gas emission from direct seeded paddy fields under different soil water potentials in Eastern India. Agriculture Environment and Ecosystems 228, 111–123.

    Kumar, M., Kumar, R., Meena, K.L., Rajkhowa, D.J., Kumar, A., 2016b. Productivity enhancement of rice through crop establishment for livelihood improvement in Eastern Himalaya. Oryza 53(3), 300–308.

    Porra, R.J., Thompson, W.A., Kriedemann, P.E. 1989. Determination of accurate extinction coefficients and simultaneous equations for assaying chlorophylls a and b extracted with four different solvents: verification of the concentration of chlorophyll standards by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biochemica et biophysicaActa 975, 384–394.

    Rahman, M.D.M. ,2016. Weed Management Strategy for Dry Direct Seeded Rice. Advances in Plants & Agriculture Research 3(5), 01–14.

    Roy, D.K., Kumar, R., Kumar, A., 2011. Production potentiality and sustainability of rice based cropping sequences under flood prone situation of North Bihar. Oryza 48(1), 47–51.

    Singh, A., Singh, R.K., Kumar, P., Singh, S., 2013. Growth, weed control and yield of DSR as influenced by different herbicides. Indian Journal of Weed Science 45(4), 235–238.

    Singh, S.K., Abraham, T., Singh, A.K., Kumar, S., Kumar, R., 2017. Response of crop establishment methods and split application of nitrogen on productivity of rice. Environment & Ecology 35(2A), 859–862.

    Thapa, C.B., 2012. Toxic effects of herbicides on transplanted paddy. Nepalese Journal of Biosciences 2, 5–9.

    XuePing, Z., XiuMei, W., Qieng, W., ChangXing, W., Fen, D., 2000. Phytotoxicity of bispyribac-sodium and other herbicides to rice. ActaAgriculturaeZhejiangensis 12(6), 368–373.


Cite

1.
Mahapatra A, Saha S, Munda S, Shukla RK. Studies on Phytotoxicity of Herbicides and Herbicide Mixtures and its effect on Yield of Direct-Sown Rice (Oryza sativa L.) IJBSM [Internet]. 07Dec.2017[cited 8Feb.2022];8(1):853-856. Available from: http://www.pphouse.org/ijbsm-article-details.php?article=1048

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